Page-5 of UPSC Mains Model Questions - September, 2022

The chronic under-investment in Indian Railways has not only impacted its operation but also created hurdles in speedy creation of infrastructure. Examine the challenges and steps taken by the government in this regard.

Indian Railways is a lifeline of the nation. It provides affordable transport to poor passengers and carries 40% of freight traffic. Challenges in infrastructure creation: Lack of budgetary Support – Government is facing fiscal deficit constraints. Railways is thus suffering from shortage of funds. Low profitability – operating ratio is 96% which means that the ..

North East India continues to face several security threats despite its strategic importance. Discuss. What steps have been taken by the government to ensure peace and stability in the region?

North East India due to its historical background and geographical location faces a variety of security threats. These threats have existed, in varying forms, since independence. Security threats in North East India: Insurgency – Insurgent groups are active in Assam, Manipur, and Nagaland. They have varying demands, from autonomy to secession. Drug trafficking – This ..

India has been experiencing several attempts to attack over the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII), both by state and non state actors. What are the factors behind increased instances of attacks? Also, enumerate the steps taken by the Indian government to secure its CII.

Critical Information Infrastructure is that which is vital for the domestic economy and national security. It includes the finance system, Defence system, Telecommunication networks, power  grids, etc. Reasons for targeting CII: It is a kind of modern and unconventional warfare, which is far more cost effective than a conventional war, both in terms or economic ..


Highlight the multifaceted role played by ISRO in diversified developmental activities of the nation apart from its core work of launching satellites.

ISRO was established in the 1950s, as the spearhead of the Indian Space Program. In recent years, it has played a multifaceted role for the development of nation. Providing broadband connectivity to remote areas, e.g. J&K, North East. This spurs economic growth. Increasing access to tele-medicine and tele-education, e.g. through GSAT II. Agriculture – ISRO ..


The overflowing rivers and heavy rains are not the only reasons behind the issue of urban flooding; the problem is magnified due to the uninformed ways in which our cities are coping with urbanization. Elaborate. Also, mention the National Disaster Management Authority guidelines on urban floods.

About 33% of Indian population lives in urban cities at present. Lately, the mega cities have become more vulnerable to floods, e.g. Chennai (2015), Hyderabad (2019) and most recent, Bangalore (2022). Link between Urban Floods and Unplanned Urbanization: Urbanization is neglecting natural contours of the land. It is difficult for water to drain away easily. ..


It has been argued that the proposed amendments to the Forest conservation act (FCA) will go against the Forest Rights Act (FRA), and may create hurdles for India in achieving its commitments on climate change. Discuss.

The Forest conservation Act, 1980 aimed to increase forest cover of the nation and imposes restrictions on diversion of forest land for non forest use. Proposed amendments to FCA are: Liberalized acquisition of forest land for development purpose. Forest guards/officials will be given greater powers, including right to use firearms. Arrest of any forest dweller ..