Page-19 of UPSC Mains Model Questions - September, 2022

Discuss the importance for providing social security to gig workers. Highlight the challenges that exist in this regard.

Gig workers means the workers engaged in delivering services via various unconventional ways, like freelancing, independent auditing, etc. They form about 13% of India’s workforce. Need for social security to gig workers: Not fixed term employment. Flow of revenues is uncertain. No social security covering them. Form a big chunk of India’s labour force, so ..

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The government has renewed its focus on strategic disinvestment in recent times. In this light, examine the rationale behind it and discuss the concerns raised against it.

Strategic disinvestment means that the government is divesting its majority stake from a public sector enterprise (PSE) and transferring its management & ownership to a private entity. Rationale behind strategic disinvestment: Enhances efficiency of the PSUs. Pull out the public finance. Bring government out of non-essential sector. Finance for infrastructure development. Helps in increasing profitability ..

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Highlight the reasons behind an underdeveloped corporate bond market in India. Suggest reforms required in this regard.

Corporate bond market in India is 16 % of GDP compared to more than 70% in South Korea which shows the underdevelopment. Issues faced by corporate bond market: Lack of investors due to trust deficit. Absence of proper policy promotion. Twin balance sheet deterioration leading to further issues. Lack of diversified investment options. Lack of ..

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Throw some light on the concept of gender budgeting and mention reasons behind its poor status in India. Also, suggest measures to address these issues.

Gender Budgeting as a concept, was introduced in India in 2005, to incorporate three dimensions of gender in budgeting. Gender based allocations. Allocations to gender in lumpsum allowances. Women-centric schemes and programmes. Issues plaguing gender budgeting: No data on gender related allocation and its after effects. Pre-estimation exercise lacking, leading to misallocation. Political will remains ..

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Highlight the role of public private partnership (PPP) and input-based distribution franchisee models in the power sector to handle the problem of distribution losses.

Input-based distribution franchise model is the incorporation of inputs and pre-determination of estimated scenario in preparing power purchase agreements (PPA). Benefits of PPP in power sector: Combines efficiency of private sector with infrastructure of public sector. Involves proper determination of peak demand and cost analysis leading to informed pricing and better operational performance. Helps in ..

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Microcredit has multiple advantages but its effectiveness as a financial tool has come under question in recent times. Discuss in the context of India.

Microcredit refers to small amount of credit given to small entrepreneurs and other poorer sections to help them become self employed or start a small business. It is a helpful tool for especially the vulnerable ones but recently the huge NPAs caused due to microcredit in India has brought to surface the debate on microfinancing. ..

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