Page-3 of UPSC Mains Model Questions - July, 2022

Discuss how the structure of caste system in India has undergone a paradoxical change over last few decades.

Caste system or the “Chaturvarna System” has been an integral element of Indian Society since ancient times. Basic features of traditional caste structure: Strict 4-fold division of occupations, viz. Brahmins-religious rituals, Shudras-Menial jobs. Segregation of living space on the basis of caste. Discrimination on the basis of caste – untouchability. Changes over last few decades: ..

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China’s BRI is often accused of creating unsustainable debt-for-infrastructure deals across the world. Discuss in light of debt-trap diplomacy of China.

China’s Belt & Road Initiative is a massive infrastructure project by China aimed at reviving the ancient maritime & terrestrial silk route. BRI – unsustainable debt-for-infrastructure deals: Sri Lanka’s Hambantota port leased to china for 100 years. There is also a role of China’s BRI in Sri Lanka’s current economic crisis. Maldives also lost one ..

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In India, both Centre and States have misused the provision of issuing ordinances, even though it amounts to seizing the legislative powers by the executive. Critically examine.

Article 123 provides for issuance of ordinances by executive in extraordinary circumstances when legislative is not in session. Ordinance-route – Usurpation of power by executive: Legislative/law-making is a domain of the legislative in our democratic setup. Escape of parliamentary oversight over laws. Against principles of representative democracy, as parliament is the forum of people’s representation. ..

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In light of the economic rise of Bangladesh, examine the opportunities for India and hope for South Asia. Discuss the associated challenges and suggest a way forward.

Bangladesh has surpassed India in terms of per capita GDP. This economic rise of Bangladesh poses new opportunities & hopes. Reasons for economic rise of Bangladesh: Subsidies & concessions due to LDC status. Unique models of financial inclusion (Grameen Banks). A strong and labour intensive manufacturing sector, e.g. textiles, toys. Opportunities for India in Bangladesh’s ..

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India continues to perform poor in global hunger index despite adequate food stocks and statutory laws to ensure food security. Analyze and provide solutions to deal with this problem.

Recently India has ranked on 107th position in Global Hunger Index despite overflowing FCI godowns and food wastage. Magnitude of Problem of hunger in India: Burden of malnutrition. High rate of stunting among children. Approximately 50% women are anaemic. Safeguards available: Green revolution & procurement by FCI from farmers. PM-Aasha for enhanced procurement of pulses, ..

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Women in India do not enjoy their full reproductive rights. Highlight the interventions adopted to remove these barriers.

Reproductive health & choices are an important component of fundamental rights to life & personal liberty of women, under Article 21 as ruled by the Supreme Court in a recent judgement. Despite above fundamental right, there exist barriers to its realization: Inadequacy of healthcare infrastructure – Doctor/population ratio is below WHO recommended 1:1000. Also PHC/population ..

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