Page-2 of UPSC Mains Model Questions - August, 2022

Highlight the need for promoting energy efficiency in India. Mention the steps taken by the government in this regard.

Energy efficiency refers to optimal utilisation of produced output with minimal wastage/ loss in its transmission or consumption. Current status: India is among top 3 consumer of energy in the world. Heavy reliance on coal (50%) and oil (20%) in overall energy basket. Concern: High transmission losses. Huge import dependence on coal and oil. Opportunity: ..

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Highlight the issues faced by the agricultural marketing system in India.

Agricultural marketing system is key pillar in achieving the dual goal of food security and income security for producer. Includes sum total of operations undertaken in making available the produce to final consumer from farm gate. Issues faced: Inefficient marketing system dominated by APMC Inadequate infrastructure. High entry barriers. Complex licensing system creating monopoly of ..

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Examine the need of urgent investment in human capital formation for India.

With 54% of population below the age of 25 years, demographic dividend is India’s most critical asset. Human capital formation: Refers to acquisition of skills and increase in productivity of workforce through investment in education and health. Demographic dividend began in 2008 and will peak by 2046. Largest share of English speaking, young workforce. Need ..

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The infrastructure is considered as a key determinant of the economic development of a nation. In this context, highlight the issues faced in infrastructure financing in India.

Infrastructure is the key to quality of public life and level of economic activity in a nation. Characteristics (National statistical Commission): Public good High externality Non tradability of output High sunk cost Key determinant of economic development: Pillar of every sector. Agriculture Storage, transport, marketing are core of the sector. Agriculture infrastructure fund of 1 ..

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Throw some light on the types of unemployment that exists in a developing economy like India.

The unemployment refers to the situation where individuals who are willing and available for work are unable to find employment. Various Types: Open unemployment Willing to work, available but unable to find. Disguised Unemployment Though seemingly employed but labour productivity and contribution is close to nil. g. Agriculture sector in India employs 47% workforce but ..

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Highlight the potential, significance of food processing sector in India. Also mention the issues that have plagued the development of this sector.

Food processing sector represents the sunshine sector contributing to over 13% of our GDP and 1/3rd of total food market. Potential: Consumer demand – High growth in organic sector. Rise in middle class, increasing consumerism and income. Favourable climatic conditions – 46 out of 60 soil types are present in India. Over 100 agro climatic ..

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