In most of the five year plan, India missed the growth targets in agriculture. Analyze the key reasons for the low agricultural growth in the country.
Agriculture in India has been practiced since the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The rank of India is second in terms of the total farm output. About 50% of India’s population is associated with the agricultural sector that contributes 17% of India’s GDP. After India’s independence, several revolutions have taken place that helped the poverty alleviation program and ensures food security. The conditions of Indian agriculture during the five-year planning are discussed below.
Five-year plans and agricultural development
- During the first five year plan (1951-1956), special attention was given to the agricultural sector. A total of Rs. 1960 crores were invested. The overall food production was increased and it helped to end inflation.
- During the second five year plan, a big push theory was applied to the industrial sector. Agricultural development was not up to that mark and it caused difficulties in the Indian economy. The price level rose and the wholesale price index increased for all commodities. The second plan made India realize the importance of agriculture.
- Special attention in the agricultural sector was given in the third plan due to the degradation of the agricultural sector in the second plan. Self-reliance and self-generation was the main agenda. In brief, it could be said that the Third Plan failed to achieve the agricultural target.
- During the three years of plan holiday. Several strategies were adopted for agricultural development. The green revolution improved the condition in some of the northern states. Plant protection measures with chemical fertilizers and pest control were adopted.
- The strategy of the fourth plan for agricultural development was largely dependent on the extension of the HYV seed and multiple cropping programs. The growth rate was targeted at 5% but only 2.8% was achieved.
- The agriculture sector was given special attention in the fifth five-year plan (1974-78). In the period between 1977-78, a significant rise in agricultural growth was noticed.
- The ninth plan India attained self-sufficiency.
Similarly, even all the developmental activities were initiated for agricultural growth, the other five year plans also missed the growth target of agricultural products due to appropriate strategy, lack of proper irrigation facilities, technological glitch, institutional failure, etc