How does Mandu showcase the fact that humans adapt to their environment?

Mandu is an ancient city in the present-day Dhar district in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh. Mandu was the subdivision of the Taranga kingdom in the 11th century. It gained prominence under the Paramaras. Due to its strategic position, it was an important place with a rich culture and varied history. This fortress town of Mandu is celebrated for its architecture.

Architecture and environmental significance

Mandu is a standard representation of the provincial style of art and architecture of the medieval period. A mixture of official and residential palace, pavilions, mosques, reservoirs, baolis, etc is found here. All the structures were very approaching to nature, designed in the style of arched pavilions, light, and airy so that these buildings did not grasp heat that could affect the environmental condition. The stone and marble used were collected locally. It could be considered a fine example of architectural adaptation to the environment. These structures were used for rainwater harvesting purposes. This storage of water could enable Mandu town to meet the water crisis if any arose.

Present issues

Most of the present day’s construction is not environment friendly.

  • The transport of materials that are not available locally has a negative impact on the environment.
  • Production of construction materials causes environmental damage.
  • The process of construction affects the environment by creating waste, noise, etc.
  • After the completion of the construction process, the building affects the ecosystem. Resources like energy and water consumed by the residential people emit harmful gases.
  • Construction provides an impetus to global warming by absorbing heat.


The impact of architecture affects the environment severely. Present India can learn from ancient and medieval culture and construction design. It will also ensure environmental sustainability.


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