Enumerate the concerns related to the antibacterial resistance. What are the factors responsible for its occurrence?
Antimicrobial resistance is a situation when microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites) evolve or change when they are exposed to antimicrobial agents (such as antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antimalarials, and antihelminthics) and develop resistance mechanisms to it. The medicines become ineffective and infections persist in the body, increasing the risk of spread to others.
- It is estimated to kill 50 million by 2050 worldwide
- More than 50 per cent of antibiotics in many countries are used inappropriately
- Lack of knowledge and awareness of the problem by prescribers and the public
- Diagnostic uncertainty due to limitations of actual diagnostic tests and insufficient diagnostic capacities
- Lack of access to evidence-based treatment guidelines taking into account local epidemiology
- Lack of access to data reflecting the quality of antibiotic prescribing and use
- Inappropriate use of antibiotics
- Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary practice
- Insufficient research and development
- Difficulties in pursuing regulatory approval
- Differences in clinical trial requirements among countries
- Changes in regulatory and licensing rules
- Fast development of resistant strains also making antibiotic ineffective soon
- The unnecessary prescription of antibiotics for viral infections
There is an urgent need to have strict rules and regulations regarding the matter of antibacterial resistance. Policymakersï¿½can help tackle resistance by regulating and promoting appropriate use of medicines and increase spending on innovation and infrastructure.
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