Discuss the importance of space technology applications for disaster management in India with suitable examples.
India is highly susceptible to natural disasters ranging from cyclones to earthquakes. In recent years, the frequency of such disasters has increased and demands new technologies to mitigate the damage caused. Space-based technologies such as Earth observation satellites, communication satellites, meteorological satellites and global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) play vital role in disaster risk reduction.
The geospatial data obtained from earth observation satellites, especially at the times of major events like earthquakes and floods acts as a key tool in risk assessment and risk reduction. In case of large urban areas, these space technologies can provide information about the damaged buildings and hazardous sites that are highly vulnerable to secondary disasters. Space technology also helps in determining the land use/land cover pattern, capturing weather data, crop monitoring, global rainfall monitoring, fire hotspot, haze monitoring and formulating drought mitigation strategies.
- Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) or NavIC is an independent regional navigation satellite system developed to provide reliable position, navigation and timing services over India and its neighbourhood.
- GSAT satellites are India’s indigenously developed technologies of communications satellites, used for capturing and transmitting digital audio, video and other data.
- Cartosat series of satellites are earth observation satellites designed to collect high-resolution imagery of earth for use in urban planning & infrastructure development.
- Remote sensing and Geographic information system (GIS) helps in capturing information and mapping and analyzing feature events on earth. (239 words)