Differentiate between de-radicalization, counter -radicalization & anti radicalization.
Radicalization is the process of persuading someone to adopt radical positions. Based on context and circumstances violence due to radicalization may take diverse forms. Based on different stages of life cycle of radicalization and depending on the techniques, tactics and practices, anti- radicalization, counter-radicalization and de-radicalization are measures used to reverse the process of radicalization.
Anti-radicalization constitutes its own doctrine to combating radicalization. Anti-radicalization programs intend to protect those who have recently come under the influence of radicalization. Anti-radicalization measures cover aspects related to early detection of trends toward extremism. Along with this anti-radicalization program emphasize immunity development and deterrence.
These measures are launched in communities whose segments are already radicalized and target those segments of society who are prone to the process of joining extremist forces. The idea here is to rescue such communities from fully adopting the ideology of extremism. Counter radicalization measures include disengagement, rehabilitation and reintegration programs.
De -radicalization includes measures to treat violent extremists during their period of imprisonment, so that they do not propagate extremist ideas once they are out of jail. These programs are solely for those who have already been radicalized and may have even committed violent acts. Therefore it covers post-surrender and post-detention programs such as behaviour modification programs, ideological counselling, post-release surveillance etc.
There is lack of consensus among experts, therefore sometimes, the term ‘counter-radicalization’ is loosely used to include all the above categories of programs to combat radicalization.