"Both India and China have been active in African continent in last few decades but there are fundamental differences between India's presence in Africa vis-à-vis China."Elucidate.

India and China have their footprints in Africa, however they differ in their presence.
Firstly, China prefers government-to-government deals, whereas Indian investment is mainly in the private sector like telecommunications.
Secondly, China’s naval presence is more intensive and sustained. But India is nowhere in the scene in this context.
Thirdly, China is also engaged in defence exchanges, military assistance, cultivation of special security partnerships and arms sales etc. it has engaged into conflict resolution from a non-interventionist role, whereas India’s presence in Africa is meagre in this respect.
However, India really need not got the China way. Rather India should adhere to corporate social responsibility (CSR) and a partnership-oriented business culture. India should focus on value-addition, employment creation and skill development.


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