Mains-22: Salient Features of World’s Physical Geography

Winter Solstice and its Significance

The word solstice is derived from the Latin word ‘solstitum’ which stands for the Sun standing still. It is on this day the Sun seems to stand still at the Tropic of Capricon & then reverses its direction as it reaches the southernmost position. It is also referred to as the sunturn. The Winter solstice ..

What is El Nino? Has the extreme El Niño become more often?

El Niño is a climate phenomenon that takes place over the equatorial Pacific. When there is a warming of the sea surface temperature in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific Ocean, it is known as El Niño. When the opposite cooling phase takes place, it is known as La Niña. While El Niño causes warmer ..

What are the findings of the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate?

The Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate has been published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It was the last in a series of three reports on specific themes that IPCC has published last year. Findings of the Report The frequency of extreme El Nino and La Nina ..


Had there been no Himalayas, what would have been the winter climate in north India?

Himalayas run across 2500 km in East-West direction, creating a natural wall between Central Asia and Indian sub-continent. In winter, it blocks the cold polar air blowing southwards from Central Asia from entering India, thus keeping India 3° to 8°C warmer than the regions of similar cold latitudes in Asia. Had there been no Himalayas, ..

Explain the causes of the Indian Monsoon.

Monsoon means seasonal reversal of winds which brings rainfall due to moisturised winds passing over water bodies. Indian Monsoon is the seasonal phenomenon caused by the differences of temperature and pressure over water bodies and landmass. In summer, the movement of the sun towards the Tropic of Cancer increases the temperature of Indian sub continental ..