Mains-12: World War-I & World War-II

What were the major alliances and wars of 18th century Europe? Critically examine their conflicts while keeping in focus the delicate balance of power.

In 18th century Europe, nations focused nearly all their attention on the struggle for power, dominance, and territory. Four major players took stage: Austria, led by the Habsburg family, especially Maria Theresa; Prussia, ruled by the Hohenzollern family, especially Frederick II; France, controlled by the Bourbon family, especially Louis XIV, Louis XV, and Louis XVI; ..

Discuss the reasons that helped Industrial Revolution and political liberalization spread first and fast in Western Europe during the 18th and 19th century. Analyze their implications.

Industrial revolution originated first in Western Europe, particularly Britain, and then spread to other European nations like France, Germany, Portugal and Italy. Political liberalization means a movement for political sovereignty of people to some extent, or in other words, loosening of government control over certain matters such as trade and industry. Political liberalisation contributed to ..

How Communism took over Eastern Europe after World War II? Discuss the steps taken by the Western Countries to contain Communism, and to what extent were they successful in it.

Eastern Europe region was the main battlefield during the Second World War. The process of spreading communism in this region started at the end of world war-I and was expedited after the end of world war-II. In 1918, Russia under the leadership of Lenin, a powerful communist leader, started annexing the neighbouring countries. Hungary was ..


Discuss the key changes introduced in Eastern Europe in the aftermath of World War-I? Why democracy failed to establish a permanent hold in the newly formed countries of Eastern Europe? Elucidate.

Changes introduced in Eastern Europe after World War-1 The Treaty of Versailles resulted in new national boundaries and countries. The former empire of Austria-Hungary was dissolved, and new nations were created from its land: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. The Ottoman Empire was disintegrated and lost most of its land to Allies. It retained only ..

"The League of Nations created in the aftermath of World War-I failed to stop the fascist aggression and thereby failing to stop the outbreak of World War-II in 1939."In this context, explain the reasons for the failure of the League of Nations.

Reasons for the failure of the League of Nations were as follows: The ultimate goal of League of Nation was achieving disarmament. But, the domestic forces were hostile to disarmament and League failed to achieve its major objective. This failure was the main reason for heavy destruction caused during the World War-II. The absence of ..