Mains-02: Indian Literature

What is the ideology of the Sufi and Bhakti traditions? How can they be used as instruments to fight communalism?

Sufi and Bhakti movements emphasized on the devotion rather than rituals and worldly materials. They aimed to build a relationship with the god. Both Sufism and Bhakti movements have a similar ideologies like They emphasise on mysticism and attach no importance to rituals. They aim to understand the divine through devotion. Both transcended the barriers ..

The discussion about the great seats of learning in ancient India is often confined to north and North West India, while such examples in South India don't find much attention. Throw light upon three great seats of learning that developed in ancient South India while highlighting their impacts on overall life in South.

Some of the great seats of learning in ancient South India and their impacts on overall life in South are as follows: Madurai Madura (Madurai) was the capital city of the Pandya kings; ancient Madurai can be traced back to the Sangam Period. It was a great seat of leaning. As per traditions, the Pandya capitals ..

The Jatakas furnish us valuable material not only for literature and art, but also for the study of economic condition of ancient India. Critically discuss with suitable examples.

The Jataka are based on the premise that before his birth as Gautama, Buddha passed over 550 births in both human and animal forms. Jatakas were possibly compiled in the second and third centuries (A.D.) by the Mahayana and the Tantrika sects of Buddhism. Some Jatakas give information on economic activities, trades and professions. Some ..


What are criteria used by UNESCO to put a language into four levels of language endangerment? Discuss while enumerating two examples of Indian languages placed in each of these levels.

An endangered language is one that is likely to become extinct in the near future. As per UNESCO, any language spoken by less than 10,000 persons is considered “potentially endangered”. Not every potentially endangered language necessarily faces the threat of immediate extinction. However, that number indicates a threshold. UNESCO has categorized languages on basis of endangerment as ..

What are the Harappan socio-cultural elements that have continued in later India? In the light of these elements, do you think that the time has come to put the Aryan invasion theory to rest? Discuss critically.

There are a number of Harappan socio-cultural elements which have continued in later India. Some of these include: Potter’s wheel, carts, boats etc. The use of water-jars and the habit of throwing away the goblets of terracotta after use. The methods of house building, particularly the Harappan use of stucco. Practice of building ritual bathing tanks ..