2018-CGS-12: April 1-13, 2018
Part-A: Glossary of Important Terms in News – 2016-2018: Part-II of IV
151. Aaykar Setu
Aerosols are tiny particles formed both naturally and anthropogenically; naturally formed aerosols are dust whipped by wind, sea salt, sulphate compounds arise by natural processes and plants release organic materials into the air and aerosols formed by anthropogenic activities are soot, sulphates from the burning of fossil fuel, fly ash from thermal plants & nitrates from vehicular emissions which forms the bulk of the haze.
Aerosols in the atmosphere by natural means are not invariably a bad thing in fact they act like a substrate around which water vapour could condense into droplets and helps to form clouds. But those released by anthropogenic activities in form of pollutes may alter the climate adversely.
Aerosols are short-lived, unlike greenhouse gases that persist and thereby accumulate in the atmosphere for longer period, these fine particles stays aloft in the atmosphere only for one to three weeks.
They are not evenly distributed around the globe, probably they concentrated near places where they are generated and can also be transported by winds across continents. The quantity and the type of aerosols found in the atmosphere changes from time to time as per seasonal variations.
153. Agricultural income (Taxation Provisions)
Section 2 (1A) of the Income Tax Act defines agricultural income as rent/revenue from land, income derived from this land through agriculture and income derived from buildings on that land.
Section 10 (1) of the Income Tax Act excludes agricultural income from a computation of total income. Neither of these sections is dispute-free and chartered accountants and lawyers have been enriched via these. But broadly, these propositions are true. In the Seventh Schedule, Entry 82 in the Union List mentions taxes other than agricultural income, while Entry 46 in the State List mentions taxes on agricultural income.
The Union Government is launched AGRI-UDAAN Food and Agribusiness Accelerator 2.0 programme in an attempt to promote innovation and entrepreneurship in agriculture. It will mentor startups and help them connect with potential investors.
The programme will help convert innovative ideas from India’s rural youth into viable businesses startups and help them connect with potential investors. It aims to attract the youth from rural India and elsewhere, and train them so they can add value to the farmers’ produce. It is managed by
- ICAR-NAARM’s (Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Academy of Agricultural Research Management) technology incubator,
- IIM Ahmadabad’s Centre for Innovation
155. Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) System
Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) is a technology that allows Diesel Submarines to operate without having to surface or use a snorkel to access atmospheric oxygen .Navies who wish to operate non-nuclear subs with long-range and large weapons payload are now option for large diesel submarines equipped with AIP, which provide the closest alternative to nuclear powered submarines.
Some examples are the Soryu class of Japan, Type 216 being developed by Germany and the Shortfin Barracuda of France which will be operated by Australia.
156. Ameenpur Lake
157. Antara and Chhaya
An anti-cyclone also known as a high pressure area is a large atmospheric circulation system with the wind flowing clockwise around it in the Northern Hemisphere, an counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
Anticyclones form from air masses cooling more than their surroundings, which causes the air to contract slightly making the air more dense. Since dense air weighs more, the weight of the atmosphere overlying a location increases, causing increased surface air pressure.
The strongest anticyclones occur over snow-covered portions of Asia and North America in the winter when clear, dry air masses cool from a loss of infrared radiation, while little sunlight is absorbed to offset that infrared cooling.
159. Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2018
160. Article 35-A
161. Asia Africa Growth Corridor
Asia Africa Growth Corridor is a joint initiative of India and Japan. It was launched in May 2017. Its detailed roadmap has been prepared by three agencies viz. Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS) New Delhi, the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) Jakarta, and Institute of Developing Economies (IDE-JETRO) of Tokyo.
The basic endeavour of this project is to rediscover ancient sea routes and creating new sea corridorswhich link African continent with India and countries of South Asia and South-East Asia. The prime focus of this project are on four areas as follows:
- Development and cooperation projects
- Quality infrastructure and institutional connectivity
- Capacity and skill enhancement
- People-to-people partnerships.
The ultimate objective of this corridor is to build a robust institutional, industrial and transport infrastructure in growth poles among countries in Asia and Africa. India will contribute by modernizing its own sea ports under the Sagarmala Project and also helping economies of Africa in development of sea ports. Japan will contribute to the project through its state-of-the-art technology and ability to build quality infrastructure.