Physical sciences: GK, General Studies and Current Affairs


Graphene is one of the thinnest, strongest two dimensional materials. Graphene is a two dimensional material consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb or chicken wire structure. It is the thinnest material known and yet it is also the one of the strongest. It’s an  allotrope of Carbon.  Graphene is 200 times ..

Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP)

The Union Cabinet has approved the Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP). Four main facets of this policy are: uniform license for exploration and production of all forms of hydrocarbon, an open acreage policy Easy to administer revenue sharing model and Marketing and pricing freedom for the crude oil and natural gas produced. The decision will enhance domestic ..


Aerosols are tiny particles formed both naturally and anthropogenically; naturally formed aerosols are dust whipped by wind, sea salt, sulphate compounds arise by natural processes and plants release organic materials into the air and aerosols formed by anthropogenic activities are soot, sulphates from the burning of fossil fuel, fly ash from thermal plants & nitrates ..

Carbon Tax

The tax that is levied on the carbon content of fuels is called Carbon Tax. So, in Carbon Tax, the burning of fossil fuels viz. coal, petroleum products such as gasoline and aviation fuel, and natural gas is taxed in proportion to their carbon content. The result is an increase in the competitiveness of non-carbon ..

Black Carbon

Black Carbon is formed as a by-product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, bio-fuels and biomass. It is the strongest absorbent of light amongst all the components of particulate matter. Main Properties of Black Carbon It is directly emitted in the atmosphere as fine particles PM5. It is highly effective in absorbing solar energy and ..