Archives

Changes in Zamindari System from Mughal to British Era

During reigns of Shershah Suri and Akbar, the system was that land revenue was collected directly by the officers of the state and could be paid either in cash or in kind, though cash payments were encouraged. Thus, the peasant called ryot held his land directly  from the crown. But in the eighteenth century, with […]

Critical Analysis of Permanent Settlement of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha

The assessment of the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha should be done in the light of following points. Position of Zamindars The permanent settlement was mainly done to make the amount of land revenue permanent, certain and fixed. The ownership of land had undergone paradigm shift. In Mughal era, Zamindar was not owner of […]

Izaredar System

After the battle of Plassey, the British secured the Diwani rights (rights to collect revenue). When Robert Clive obtained the Diwani of Bengal, there used to be annual settlements of the Land revenue. Izaredari system was introduced in 1773 by Warren Hastings in Bengal whereby he assumed that all land belongs to State. This was […]