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Land Revenue in Ancient India

Land revenue system in ancient India was based upon income from land, thus rated according to the productivity and kind of soil. Manu fixed it between 1/6, 1/8 or 1/12 according to the quality of the soil. Gautama raises the lower limit to 1/10. Sukra’s schedule gives 1/6, 1/4, 1/3 and 1/2 according to the […]

Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

Kautilya has written that a state could be at risk from four types of threats viz. internal, external, externally-aided internal and internally-aided external. Out of them, the internal threats should be taken care of immediately, for internal troubles, like the fear of the lurking snake, are far more serious than external threats. Thus, the most […]

Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

Kautilya has written that a state could be at risk from four types of threats viz. internal, external, externally-aided internal and internally-aided external. Out of them, the internal threats should be taken care of immediately, for internal troubles, like the fear of the lurking snake, are far more serious than external threats. Thus, the most […]