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India’s Cash-to-GDP Ratio

Cash-to-GDP Ratio or Currency in Circulation (CIC) to GDP Ratio or simply currency-to-GDP ratio shows the value of cash in circulation as a ratio of GDP. Implications of higher Cash-GDP Ratio There are two dimensions of cash viz. its function and its nature / origin. In terms of function, cash can be used as a medium of exchange but also […]

Voluntary Provident Fund

Voluntary Provident Fund (VPF) refers to the voluntary contribution that an employee makes towards his Provident Fund Account over and above the mandatory 12% of his basic salary. VPF is fixed at a proportion of the salary and its percentage cannot be reduced or increased midyear. VPF is available only to salaried employees and is […]

Gross Irrigated Area and Net Irrigated Area

We can classify the irrigated area into gross and net irrigated area. The Net Irrigated Area is the actual land area on which irrigation was used for growing crops for as many times as many in an agricultural year {Agricultural Year is from 1st July to 30th June}. On the other hand, Gross irrigated area […]