British India

Mahalwari System

December 5, 2015

The Zamindari as well as the Ryotwari System could not fulfil the expectations of the policymakers. A third type of system called Mahalwari system was introduced in Agra, Awadh (Oudh), Central parts of India, Punjab, parts of Gangetic valley etc during regime of Lord Hastings. Mahal refers to an...

Izaredar System

December 5, 2015

After the battle of Plassey, the British secured the Diwani rights (rights to collect revenue). When Robert Clive obtained the Diwani of Bengal, there used to be annual settlements of the Land revenue. Izaredari system was introduced in 1773 by Warren Hastings in Bengal whereby he assumed that all...

Hunter Committee Report

October 22, 2011

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was followed by establishment of a non-official enquiry committee was Congress. The British Government did not initiate such inquiry till Congress had set up such committee. Later, the Government established a Disorders Inquiry Committee headed by Lord William Hunter, a Senator of College of Justice...

Montagu Declaration (August Declaration) 1917

October 22, 2011

Edwin Samuel Montagu served as Secretary of State for India between 1917 and 1922. On 20 August 1917, he made a historic declaration in the House of Commons defining the goal of British policies in India. In the previous month, he had made a scathing attack on the whole system...

Indian Councils Act 1909 (Morley Minto reforms)

October 20, 2011

The Indian Councils Act 1909 or Morley-Minto Reforms  or Minto-Morley Reforms was passed by British Parliament in 1909 in an attempt to widen the scope of legislative councils, placate the demands of moderates in Indian National Congress and to increase the participation of Indians the governance. This act got royal assent...

Chhappania Akal 1899-1900

October 18, 2011

In 1896, the rainfall was less than the normal rainfalls. This was an El Niño year, the years in which the monsoon rainfall was considerably less than average, because of the El Niño. In 1897 the rains were sufficient but in the next year 1897-98, the rains were profuse,...

Brief History of Banking in India-1

April 21, 2011

The origin of western type commercial Banking in India dates back to the 18th century. The story of banking starts from Bank of Hindustan established in 1770 and it was first bank at Calcutta under European management. It was liquidated in 1830-32. From Bank of Hindustan in 1770, the evolution of...

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