Vedanta means Veda end or the purpose or goal of the Vedas. It was given by Badrayana or Maharishi Vyasa, who is one of the 7 chiranjivis and wrote “Mahabharta”.
Its proponent wes Adi Sahnakara and his Guru Gaudapada. The essence of this Vedanta is that “Brahman is the only reality, and the world, as it appears, is illusory.”
Its proponent was Rāmānuja. The basic theory is that “jīvātman is a part of Brahman, and hence is similar, but not identical. Brahman, matter and the individual souls are distinct but mutually inseparable entities”. Vishishtadvaita advocates Bhakti to attain God.
The proponent of the Dvaita was Madhwāchārya. This theory is also known as Tatvavādā – The Philosophy of Reality. It identifies God in the Brahman (Universe) and its incarnations such as Vishnu and Krishna. It says that all individual souls (jīvātmans) and matter as eternal are mutually separate entities.
The theory of Dvaitādvaita was given by Nimbarka. It is based upon the early school of Bhedābheda of Bhaskara. It says that jīvātman is at once the same as yet different from Brahman. The jiva relation may be regarded as dvaita from one point of view and advaita from another. This school identifies God in Krishna.
The proponent of Shuddhādvaita was Vallabha. It says that World is Leela of God that is Krishna and he is Sat-Chid-Aananda. It identifies Bhakti as the only means of liberation. Vallabha was also a famous saint of Pushti Marg. He won the famous debate of Brahmavad over Shankars.
The proponent of Achintya Bhedābheda was Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was a follower of the Dvaita vedanta of Sri Madhwacharya. The doctrine of Achintya Bhedābheda or inconceivable and simultaneous one-ness and difference states that the soul or energy of God is both distinct and non-distinct from God and he can be experienced through a process of long devotion. It identified God in Krishna. This Philosophy is followed by ISKCON.
Purnādvaita or Integral Advaita
The proponent of Purnādvaita was Shri Arubindo. He propounded this doctrine in his “The Life Divine”. synthesized all the exant schools of Vedanta and gave a comprehensive resolution integrating cues from the Western metaphysics and modern science. Sri Arubindo is known to be one, who restored the umbilical cord of the Vedantic exegesis with the Vedas.
The proponent of Modern Vedānta was Swami Vivekananda. His phislosophy says that the conditions of abject poverty should be removed; only then will people be able to turn their minds toward God.[table id=44 /]
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