Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

March, 2020, marks 50 years since the introduction of the first global arms control treaty, the NPT, in 1970.

About the Treaty

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is an international treaty to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and its technologies in order to achieve nuclear disarmament. The treaty was opened for signature in 1968 and it entered into force in 1970. It was indefinitely extended in 1995.


A total of 191 states are party to the NPT. This includes 5 nuclear weapons states. They are USA, Russia, China, France and UK. Some of the states have not accepted the treaty: India, Pakistan, Israel and South Sudan. The former 3 are nuclear weapons states.

Three Pillar System

The NPT is interpreted as having a 3 pillar system:

  • Non-proliferation
  • Disarmament
  • Right to peacefully use nuclear technology.

The treaty has a safeguard mechanism under the responsibility of IAEA or International Atomic Energy Agency to verify and ensure compliance.


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