Green Propulsion Technology of ISRO

ISRO is developing “Green Propulsion Technology”. The technology is being developed for the Human Space Flight Mission of India, Gaganyaan, that is to be launched in December 2021.

What is Propulsion Technology?

Propulsion means push forward or drive an object forward. In rockets and airplanes, the propulsion is generated through the application of Newton’s third law, “for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction”. A working fluid or a gas accelerates the engine.

Green Propulsion Technology of ISRO

  • ISRO began the journey of developing Green Propulsion Technology in 2018. ISRO developed an eco-friendly solid propellant Glycidyl Azide polymer GAP as fuel and Ammonium Di-Nitramide as oxidiser in 2018.
  • ISRO had been carrying out technology demonstration projects involving green propellant combinations such as kerosene, Hydrogen Peroxide, Liquid Oxygen, AND-Glycerol-water, AND-Methanol-water.
  • ISRO has begun the testing of Liquid Oxygen, Liquid Hydrogen based propulsion systems for launch vehicles.
  • ISRO has already using Green Propulsion Technologies in its mission. However, the technologies are used only in part of the mission. For instance, Liquid Oxygen, Liquid Hydrogen combination of propulsion is used in the Cryogenic upper states of GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle.
  • ISRO has developed ISORENE. ISORENE is rocket grade version of kerosene. It is an alternative to conventional Hydrazine rocket fuel.
  • ISRO successfully demonstrated the Electric Propulsion system in its South Asia Satellite that was launched in May 2017.

South Asia Satellite

It is also called the GSAT-9. The satellite is operated by ISRO for SAARC region. The satellite serves Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Maldives. Pakistan is not included in the programme.

Pakistan offered technical and monetary support to GSAT-9. However, India rejected the proposal saying it is not willing to develop the satellite on collaborative basis.

Pakistan maintains its own space programme under SUPARCO (Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission).




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  • Arjun K

    Nice information