Computer Security - Various Attacks and Malware

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8. A Trojan horse is a malicious computer program which pretends to be a useful application. Trojans generally do not attempt to inject themselves into other files or otherwise propagate themselves.


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9. Eavesdropping is the unauthorized real-time interception of a private communication, such as a phone call, instant message, videoconference or fax transmission. It focuses on capturing small packets from the network transmitted by other computers and reading the data content in search of some information.


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10. A rootkit is a clandestine computer program designed to provide continued privileged access to a computer while actively hiding its presence.


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11. A denial-of-service attack overwhelms a system’s resources so that it cannot respond to service requests. A Double denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is also an attack on system’s resources, but it is launched from a large number of other host machines that are infected by malicious software controlled by the attacker.


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12. XSS attacks use third-party web resources to run scripts in the victim’s web browser or scriptable application.


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13. Ransomware is a type of malware that blocks access to the victim’s data and threatens to publish or delete it unless a ransom is paid.


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14. Macro viruses attach to an application’s initialization sequence. When the application is opened, the virus executes instructions before transferring control to the application. These viruses infect applications such as Microsoft Word or Excel.


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15. Worms differ from viruses in that they do not attach to a host file, but are self-contained programs that propagate across networks and computers. It is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.


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16. A dropper is a program used to install viruses on computers. In many instances, the dropper is not infected with malicious code and, therefore might not be detected by virus-scanning software.


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17. A logic bomb is a type of malicious software that is appended to an application and is triggered by a specific event, such as a logical condition or a specific date and time.


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18. SQL Injection (SQLi) is a type of an injection attack that makes it possible to execute malicious SQL statements. It is a common issue with database-driven websites. It occurs when a malefactor executes a SQL query to the database via the input data from the client to server.


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19. Drive-by downloads are a common method of spreading malware. Cybercriminals look for insecure web sites and plant a malicious script into the sourcecode.


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20. IP Spoofing is a technique used to gain unauthorized access to machines, whereby an attacker illicitly impersonates another machine by manipulating IP packets.


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21. Spyware is a type of malicious program that is installed to collect information about users, their computers or their browsing habits. It tracks everything that the user does without his/her knowledge and sends the data to a remote user.


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22. Birthday attacks are made against hash algorithms that are used to verify the integrity of a message, software or digital signature. The birthday attack refers to the probability of finding two random messages that generate the same Message Digest (MD) when processed by a hash function.


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23. To avoid being detected by emulation, some viruses rewrite themselves completely each time they are to infect new executables. Viruses that utilize this technique are said to be in metamorphic code.


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24. Keystroke logging is also known as keylogging or keyboard capturing. It is the action of recording the keys struck on a keyboard, typically covertly, so that person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored.


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25. Code Red was a computer worm observed on the Internet in 2001 and it launched DOS attack on White House’s website. It attacked computers running Microsoft's IIS web server.


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