Wireless Technologies and Communication

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1. The IEEE 802.11, which is a part of the IEEE 802 set of LAN protocols, defines the standards for implementing wireless local area network.


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2. In unguided transmission, no physical medium is required for the transmission of electromagnetic signals. There are 3 major types of unguided mode of transmission - Infrared, Radiowaves and Microwaves.


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3. Infrared waves are used for communication for very short distances. These are most commonly used in TV remotes, wireless mouse, keyboard, printer, etc.


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4. WI-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity. It is a local area wireless technology. It allows an electronic device to transfer data or connect to the internet using radio waves.


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5. Wireless repeater is used to extend the range of a wireless router. A repeater receives wireless signals and amplifies the strength of the signals, and then re-emits them.


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6. Wireless adapters are those hardware devices which are installed inside computers to enable wireless connectivity. If a computer does not have a wireless adapter, it will not be able to connect to a router in order to access the Internet.


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7. GSM is a standard developed to describe the protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablets.


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8. GSM stands for Global System for Mobile. Before this it was known as Group Special Mobile. As GSM increases its global presence, the term was changed to Global System for Mobile.


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9. Hand off is the process of transferring an active call or data session from one cell in a cellular network to another or from one channel in a cell to another.


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10. UMTS stands for Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service. It is a third-generation (3G) broadband, packet-based transmission of text, digitized voice, video, and multimedia. It transfers data at rates up to 2 megabits per second (Mbps).


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11. UMTS uses wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) radio access technology which offers greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators.


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12. The maximum data transfer speed offered by Bluetooth 4.0 is 24 Mbps. It is same as the speed offered by Bluetooth 3.0.


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13. The radio signals used by 1G networks are analog. While the radio signals used by the 2G networks are digitals. This is one of the main differences between 1G and 2G.


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14. AMPS or the Advanced Mobile Phone System is a standard for 1G mobile network which was in use in North America and Australia.


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15. Hard Handoff refers to an actual break in the connection while switching from one cell or base station to another. The switch takes place so quickly that it can hardly be noticed by the user.


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16. The maximum download speed offered under LTE-Advanced standard is 1 Gbps. The LTE advanced is the 10the version of LTE.


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17. The phenomenon of bending of electromagnetic waves occurs in Ionosphere and they are diverted towards the earth. This is helpful in skywave propagation.


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18. The line of sight communication is affected by (a) the line of sight distance (b) the curvature of the earth. The space waves are used for line of sight communication such as television broadcast, microwave link and satellite communication.


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19. An Antenna is needed for both transmission and reception. λ/4 should be the minimum antenna size (in metre) for a signal with the wavelength λ.


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20. Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based specification. It is a low-power, low data rate, and close proximity (i.e., personal area) wireless ad hoc network.


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