Types of Computer Networks

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1. A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. Applications running on a computing device, e.g., a laptop, desktop, smartphone, across a VPN may therefore benefit from the functionality, security, and management of the private network. Encryption is a common, though not an inherent, part of a VPN connection.


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2. ActiveX is a software framework created by Microsoft that adapts its earlier Component Object Model (COM) and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) technologies for content downloaded from a network, particularly from the World Wide Web. It is used till IE11 but not Microsoft Edge.


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3. The bit rate is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time in computing and telecommunication. For example 1 kbit/s refers to 1000 bits/s while 1MBPS means one million bits per second. One byte per second (1 B/s) corresponds to 8 bit/s.


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4. Passive optical LANs or POLANs are adapted to indoor network architectures, and can decrease the amount of cable and equipment required to deploy a network. POLANs are ideal if there is little room for cabling.


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5. NetWare is a discontinued computer network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. It uses IPX network protocol.


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6. DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is a client/server protocol that automatically provides an Internet Protocol host with its IP address and other related configuration information.


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7. A computer network is a set of connected computers. Computers on a network are called nodes. The connection between computers can be done via cabling, most commonly the Ethernet cable, or wirelessly through radio waves.


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8. Computer networks can be broken down historically into topologies, which is a technique of connecting computers. The most common topology today is a collapsed ring.


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9. System Area Network is used to explain a relatively local network that is designed to provide high-speed connection in server-to-server applications, storage area network and processor-to-processor applications. The computers connected on a SAN operate as a single system at very high speeds.


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10. Ethernet and Wi-Fi are the two primary ways to enable LAN connections. Ethernet is a specification that enables computers to communicate with each other. Wi-Fi uses radio waves to connect computers to the LAN.


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11. Fiber Distributed Data Interface is a set of ANSI and ISO standards for data transmission on fiber optic lines in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km. The FDDI protocol is based on the token ring protocol. An FDDI local area network can support thousands of users.


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12. ARCNET is a LAN technology that uses a token-bus scheme for managing line sharing among the workstations and other devices connected on the LAN.ARCNET is one of four major LAN technologies, which also include Ethernet, token ring and FDDI.


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13. A Personal Area Network is smallest network which is very personal to a user.PAN has connectivity range up to 10 meters. PAN may include wireless computer keyboard and mouse, Bluetooth enabled headphones, wireless printers and TV remotes.


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14. An access network is a type of network which physically connects an end system to the immediate router on a path from the end system to any other distant end system. Examples of access networks are ISP, home networks, enterprise networks, ADSL, mobile network, FTTH etc.


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15. Thomas Zimmerman was the first research scientist to bring the idea of the Personal Area Network. Personal Area Network covers an area of 30 feet


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16. In MAN, various LANs are connected to each other through a telephone exchange line. The most widely used protocols in MAN are RS- 232, Frame Relay, ATM, ISDN, OC-3, ADSL, etc.


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17. A Wide Area Network is not limited to a single location, but it spans over a large geographical area through a telephone line, fiber optic cable or satellite links.


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18. An interconnection between public, private, commercial, industrial, or government computer networks can also be defined as internetworking. The reference model used for internetworking is Open System Interconnection(OSI).


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19. The most common access method of the bus topologies is CSMA or Carrier Sense Multiple Access. It is a media access control used to control the data flow so that data integrity is maintained so that the packets do not get lost.


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20. Wireless Local Area Networks is sometimes referred to as local area wireless network. It provide wireless network communication over short distances using radio or infrared signals instead of traditional network cabling.


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