System Software and Operating Systems

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1. These are names of Mac OS Operating Systems. The names of various Mac OS are as follows:

  1. Mac OS X Public Beta
  2. Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah
  3. Mac OS X 10.1 Puma
  4. Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar
  5. Mac OS X 10.3 Panther
  6. Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger
  7. Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard
  8. Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard
  9. Mac OS X 10.7 Lion
  10. OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion
  11. OS X 10.9 Mavericks
  12. OS X 10.10 Yosemite
  13. OS X 10.11 El Capitan
  14. macOS 10.12 Sierra
  15. macOS 10.13 High Sierra
  16. macOS 10.14 Mojave
  17. macOS 10.15 Catalina


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2. In computer systems (particularly UNIX and UNIX like OS), root directory is the first and top-most directory in the hierarchy.


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3. The Macintosh was the brand name of the personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January, 1984. Since 1998, it was branded as Mac.


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5. Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system. It originated in the Computing Sciences Research Center (CSRC) at Bell Labs in the mid-1980s.


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6. Singularity is an experimental operating system built by Microsoft Research between 2003 and 2010.It was designed as a high dependability OS in which the kernel, device drivers, and application software were all written in managed code


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7. A microkernel is often abbreviated as μ-kernel. It is the near-minimum amount of software that can provide the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system.


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8. A kernel is the central part of an operating system. The kernel is the lowest level of the operating system. The kernel is the main part of the operating system and is responsible for translating the command into something that can be understood by the computer.


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9. A resource allocation graph tracks which resource is held by which process and which process is waiting for a resource of a particular type. It is very powerful and simple tool to illustrate how interacting processes can deadlock.


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10. A real-time operating system is any operating system intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in. It is an operating system that guarantees a certain capability within a specified time constraint.


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11. The CPU efficiency/input decreases as the turnaround time/ waiting time of the processor increases. it is desirable to have less turnaround time and waiting time for all processes.


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12. Round robin is used in time shared operating system, as it is more responsible. Time slices are assigned to each process in equal portions and in circular order, handling all processes without priority.


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13. The compilation process is a sequence of various phases. Each phase takes input from its previous stage, has its own representation of source program, and feeds its output to the next phase of the compiler. There are around 8 phases in a compiler.


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14. Yacc stands for "yet another compiler compiler. It is the standard parser generator for the Unix operating system. Yacc generates code for the parser in the C programming language.


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15. An assembler is a program that translates assembly language into machine language. There are many types of assemblers .Some of them are one pass assembler, two pass assemble, laod and go assembler etc.


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16. Garnet OS is also known as Palm OS. It is a discontinued mobile operating system initially developed for personal digital assistants (PDAs) in 1996. Later versions of the OS have been extended to support smartphones.


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17. Spooling is a specialized form of multi-programming for the purpose of copying data between different devices. Spooling works like a typical request queue where data, instructions and processes from multiple sources are accumulated for execution later on.


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18. The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.57%).


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19. Unix is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems. The main features of UNIX include multitasking and portability capabilities.


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20. A linker is a computer program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into one, executable program. The compiler automatically invokes the linker as the last step in compiling a program.


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