Classification of Computers - Analog, Digital and Hybrid

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1. Hybrid computers are those computers which exhibit features of both the analog computers and digital computers.


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2. An analog computer is the one which is used to process continuously varying data. This changeable yet continuous data is generally referred to as the analog data.


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3. An Analog computer is used in a variety of industrial and scientific applications like measurement of electric current,  measurement of frequency and also resistance of a capacitor.


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4. An analog computer performs arithmetical operations with the help of measurable quantities like mechanical movement, rotation of gears etc.


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5. The word analog is derived from the Greek word analogon which means according to a ratio.


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6. An Analog computer uses an analog signal which can also be represented as a sine wave or a continuous wave which contains many time-varying quantities.


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7. Examples of analog signal include sound or human speech over an electrified copper wire.


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8. The amplitude of an analog wave is a measure of its intensity which is related to the highest point called crest and the lowest point called trough.


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9. Examples of analog computer include temperature, pressure, telephone lines, signal frequency, resistance of a capacitor, voltage etc.


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10. In Analog computers, data is transmitted for operation in the form of continuous signals.


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11. The castle clock which was a hydro-powered mechanical astronomical clock which was invented by Al-Jazari was the first programmable analog clock


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12. Key electronic components of an analog computer include precision resistors,  multipliers, potentiometers, operational amplifiers, fixed-function generators etc.


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13. The core mathematical operations which are used  in an electric analog computer are- integration, exponentiation, inversion, addition, multiplication, logarithm and division.


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14. A digital computer stands for a class of devices which can solve many problems by processing information in a discrete form. It works on data like magnitude, symbols, letters etc.


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15. Digital data works on various kinds of data which include magnitude, letters, symbols, etc.  and are expressed in binary code i.e. using numbers only in two digits like 0 and 1.


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16. The digital computer works by counting, comparing and manipulating various digits and their combinations as per the instructions which are stored in the memory.


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17. All the tasks mentioned above can be performed by a digital computer like analyzing vast amount of business data, simulation of global weather patterns, regulation of operations of machines etc.


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18. A digital computer system has four basic functional elements like the input-output equipment, main memory, control unit and the arithmetic logic unit.


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19. English inventor Charles Babbage is credited with the being the first one to conceive a successful first automatic digital computer.


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20. John V. Atanasoff who is an Ameican mathematician and also a physicist built the first electronic digital computer.


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21. The digital component in a hybrid computer acts as a controller and provides logical and numerical operations.


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22. Hycomp 250 was the first desktop hybrid computing system which was released by Packard Bell in 1961.


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23. The main technical problem associated with hybrid computers is the reduction of digital computer noise.


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24. In Harvard Mark I the data-processing operations are primarily controlled by electric relays or switching devices.


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25. The term Big Iron is used to describe a large, expensive and extremely fast Mainframe computer.


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