History of the Development of Computers

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1. Sytek Inc. which is now known as Hughes LAN Systems Inc. had created the NetBIOS protocol in 1983, later used by Microsoft to make its early networks.


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2. Rational Unified Process (RUP) is an iterative software development process framework created by the Rational Software Corporation, a division of IBM since 2003.


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3. The term Knowledge based Information Processing Systems (KIPS) is being used in recent times by the Japanese in context with their efforts towards the fifth generation of computers. The fifth generation computers are to be powered by artificial intelligence (AI).


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4. The discussion around the Fifth Generation computers includes new computer programming and architecture; semantics of programming languages; relational databases, linguistics theory, artificial intelligence, interference systems and so on.


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5. The term 128 bit era refers to the sixth generation in the history of the video games and video game consoles. This started in 1998 by Japanese Sega Dreamcast (DC). Other companies that joined the bandwagon of 128 bit era include Sony PlayStation 2 (PS2), Nintendo GameCube (GC), and Microsoft Xbox. The seventh generation of video game consoles started on November 22, 2005 with the launch of the Xbox 360. The current Eighth generation of video game consoles started in 2012.


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6. The first microprocessors that emerged in the early 1970s were used for electronic calculators, using binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic on 4-bit words.


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7. Vinod Dham is an engineer, entrepreneur and venture capitalist; known as 'Father of the Pentium Chip' for his contribution to the development of Intel's Pentium microprocessor.


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8. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800. It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.


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9. Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) was innovated in 1940s that led to the first commercially successful computer.


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12. Blaise Pascal had invented the first practical mechanical calculator. It was called the Pascaline and was used to help his father who was a tax-collector to solve his sums.


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13. Englishman, George Boole had invented a new branch of mathematics called the Boolean algebra. Boolean algebra and the binary code help modern computers to make simple decisions by comparison of long strings of zeroes.


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14. The first large-scale digital computer was built by mathematician Howard Aiken which was sponsored by IBM and thus called as the Howard Mark I  or IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator.


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15. Audion was the first vacuum tube invented in 1906 by Lee de Forest. It was the size of a person's thumb and glowing red hot like a tiny electric light bulb. This bagged him the nickname as "the father of radio".


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16. Steve Wozniak was a Californian electronics wizard, had developed a computer of his own named "Woz" often described as the hacker's hacker.


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17. The idea of the very first Graphical User Interface was conceived by Alan Kay. It was then pronounced as gooey.


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18. Steve Jobs launched the Apple Lisa  in 1983 which was the first widely available computer with a GUI desktop. It was Jobs own version of the Alto project.


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19. The Manchester Baby was the world's first electronic stored-program computer built at Victoria University of Manchester by Frederic C. Wiiliams.


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20. Maurice Wilkes had designed and constructed the first recognizably modern digital stored-program computer.


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21. The first commercial computer was Ferranti Mark 1 built by Ferranti and was delivered to the University of Manchester and was based on Manchester Mark 1.


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22. The first use of magnetic core was demonstrated in the Whirlwind Computer in 1953.  Soon after that commercial production of the same began and it was seen in IBM 704 and Ferranti Mercury.


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23. Metrovick 950 was the first commercial transistor computer.


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24. The first single-chip microprocessor was Intel 4004 was both designed and realised by Ted Hoff,  Federico Faggin and Stanley Mazor at Intel Corp.


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25. EDVAC or Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer was one of the earliest electronic computers. It was binary and a stored-program computer.


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