With reference to the Sustainable Development, the “Gandhian Model of Sustainable Development” has been discussed widely in recent times. What is / are main features of this model?
1. This model is against the use of machines
2. The object of this model is to attain the village level self-sufficiency
3. This model emphasizes on the restraint of demand for goods and services
4. This model emphasizes on the maximization of the utility and economic gains
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:
[A]Only 1, 2 & 3 are correct
[B]Only 2, 3 & 4 are correct
[C]Only 2 & 3 are correct
[D]1, 2, 3 & 4 are correct

Only 2 & 3 are correct
Gandhian Model of Sustainable Development Some of the central planks of the Gandhian model of sustainable development are as follows. The Gandhian perspective is non-materialistic, non-violent, harmonistic, egalitarian and value-driven. These values highlight the virtue of simplicity, of social and inner peace, the sanctity, necessity and dignity of manual labour, and the valuation of the spiritual and the moral over the sensual and the material planes. The central unit is the eternal village and villagers, who are deemed to be reservoirs of what is intrinsically valuable in society. Village-level self-sufficiency is an objective. His development model addresses the issue of sustainable development, which requires resource management and control over the pace of development and the rate of resource consumption, and restraint over insatiable demands for goods and services. The Gandhian model is sensitive to this critical issue. In this model, the guiding principle is not maximization of utility and economic gains but minimization of wants. It only means control over the insatiable propensity to consume, great sensitivity to needs. As far as question of technology is there it is wrong to say that Gandhi was against technology. As he himself had stated, what he was against was the craze for machines and not machines as such. He was, of course, not in favour of the so-called labour saving machinery or technology which will make unnecessary involvement of human hands. What ever be the arguments in favour of technology-say efficiency, productivity, precision and so on-Gandhi’s criterion was that it shall not substitute, enslave, alienate and dehumanise the human beings. He, therefore, stood for a technology that could be “put in the homes of the millions”, to quote Gandhi’s own words This was what Schumacher later termed as ‘technology with a human face. Technology 1s meant to serve a human purpose. Human beings are not for technology; technology is for human beings-this was Gandhi’s stand. It must also be mentioned here that Gandhi did not want to perpetuate crude technology. On the contrary he always favoured updating the productive instruments to make it more worker-friendly but not to substitute the human factor. The attempt he made to improve the Charkha may be cited as example.