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Quiz 633: Environment, Ecology and Biodiversity Quiz for IAS and PCS Examinations

1.Which among the following multilateral environment agreements (MEAs) is not correctly paired with the respective issue it deals with ?
[A]Montreal Protocol of 1987 – Ozone Depleting Substances.
[B]Bonn Convention of 1979 – The conservation of Migratory Species.
[C]Basel Convention of 1989 – Regulation of transboundary movement,transit, handling and use of Living Modified Organisms.
[D]Rotterdam Convention of 1998 – Consensual International Trade in certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides.

Option [C]
The Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, usually known simply as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). It does not, however, address the movement of radioactive waste.

2.Which of the following two criteria have to be met in order to qualify as a ‘biodiversity hotspot’ on the world hotspots map?
1.The region must contain at least 0.5 percent or 1500 species of vascular plants as endemic species.
2.The region has to have lost at least 70 percent of its primary vegetation.
Choose the correct option:
[A]Only 1
[B]Only 2
[C]Both 1 and 2
[D]Neither 1 nor 2

Option [C]
A biodiversity hotspot is a bio-geographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans. The concept of biodiversity hotspots was originated by Norman Myers in two articles in “The Environmentalist”. To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on Myers 2000 edition of the hotspot-map, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500 species of vascular plants as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation.

3.The ‘Red Data Book’ is the documention of rare and endangered species of :
1. Animals
2. Plants
3. Fungi
[A]Only 1
[B]1 and 2
[C]2 and 3
[D]1, 2 and 3

Option [D]
A Red Data Book contains lists of species whose continued existence is threatened. Species are classified into different categories of perceived risk. Each Red Data Book usually deals with a specific group of animals or plants and fungi. They are now being published in many different countries and provide useful information on the threat status of the species.

4.The Cartagena Protocol is regarding safe use, transfer and handling of:
[A]Nuclear waste
[B]Invasive Alien Species
[C]Living Modified Organisms(LMOs)
[D]Toxic bye-products and industrial effluents

Option [C]
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity was adopted on 29 January 2000 as a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity and entered into force on 11 September 2003. It is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another.

5.Consider the following statements regarding ‘Kyoto Protocol’:
1.It is legally binding for Annex I countries.
2.It emerged from the deliberations of COP-3 to the UNFCCC.
3.The signatories have to reduce their individual Green House Gas emissions by 5.2% from 1990 level.
Which among the above Statement(s) is/are correct?
[A]Only 2
[B]1 and 2
[C]2 and 3
[D]1, 2 and 3

Option [B]
Kyoto Protocol of COP-3 to the UNFCCC is a legally binding agreement for Annex-I countries to reduce their collective Green House Gas emissions by 5.2% from 1990 level. The reduction obligation under Kyoto Protocol is additional to the CFCs and industrial gas emissions covered under the Montreal Protocol.

6.Which among the following is the most abundant Green-House-Gas(GHG) in the earth’s atmosphere?
[A]Carbon dioxide
[B]Water Vapour
[C]Sulphur Dioxide
[D]Tropospheric Ozone

Option [B]
Water vapour also accounts for the largest percentage of the greenhouse effect, between 36% and 66% for clear sky conditions and between 66% and 85% when including clouds.

7.The Temperate Grassland or Shrub-Land Biome is commonly known as –
1.Steppe in Central Asia
2.Prairie in North America
3.Veld in South America
Choose the correct option:
[A]1 and 2
[B]1 and 3
[C]2 and 3
[D]1, 2 and 3

Option [A]
They are called ‘Pampas’ in South America.

8.The ranking of countries as the highest per capita emitters of Carbon Dioxide in the world, takes into acount their annual CO2 emissions from :
1.Burning of fossil fuels
2.Cement Manufacture
3.Land Use such as deforestation
[A]Only 1
[B]1 and 2
[C]1 and 3
[D]1, 2 and 3

Option [B]
The data only considers carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement manufacture, but not emissions from land use such as deforestation. In the list below the Countries have been ranked by their metric tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per capita in 2008.
1.Qatar
2.Trinidad and Tobago
3.UAE
4.Netherlands
5.Bahrain

9.The ‘Olive Ridley turtles’ are considered to be endangered because of their few remaining nesting sites in the world. In this context, which among the following Statement(s) is/are correct ?
1.Their peculiar behavior of synchronized nesting in mass numbers is known as ‘Arribada’.
2.Gahirmatha Beach in Orissa is one of their few nesting grounds in the world.
[A]Only 1
[B]Only 2
[C]Both 1 and 2
[D]Neither 1 nor 2

Option [C]

10.The ‘thickness’ of Stratospheric Ozone layer is measured in/on:
[A]Sieverts
[B]Dobson units
[C]Melson units
[D]Beaufort Scale

Option [B]
The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson. Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson, who developed a simple spectrophotometer (the Dobsonmeter) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground. Between 1928 and 1958 Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations, which continue to operate to this day. The “Dobson unit”, a convenient measure of the columnar density of ozone overhead, is named in his honour.

11.Consider the following Mangrove areas:
1.Bhitarkanika
2.Pichavaram
3.Coondapur
Which among the above is/are situated on the Eastern Coast of India?
[A]Only 1
[B]1 and 2
[C]1 and 3
[D]1, 2 and 3

Option [B]
Coondapur::Karnataka(Western Coast)

12.Which among the following is key faunal species that is being conserved and monitored in ‘Dachigam National Park’ ?
[A]Musk Deer
[B]Golden Oriole
[C]Yellow-throated Marten
[D]Hangul or Kashmir Stag

Option [D]
Dachigam National Park is located 22 kilometers from Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. It covers an area of 141 square kilometers.The main animal species that Dachigam is most famous for is the Hangul, or the Kashmir Stag.

13.Consider the following Statements regarding ‘Keibul lamjao National Park’:
1.It is an integral part of Loktak lake and also the only floating National Park in the world.
2.The animal species conserved here is the endangered ‘Brow-antlered deer’ or Sangai.
3.The national park is characterized by many floating decomposed plant materials locally called ‘phumdis’.
Which among the above Statement(s) is/are correct?
[A]1 and 2
[B]1 and 3
[C]2 and 3
[D]1, 2 and 3

Option [D]
The Keibul Lamjao National Park is a national park in the Bishnupur district of the state of Manipur in India.The Brow-antlered deer, which was first discovered in Manipur in 1839 and named Cervus eldi eldi in 1844 in honour of Lt. Percy Eld – a British officer, was reported an extinct species in 1951. It was re–discovered in the Keibul Lamjao Park area by the environmentalist and photographer E.P.Gee, which necessitated declaring this reserve park area as a national park to protect and conserve the deer now called Eld’s Deer’s subspecies Brow-antlered Deer (Cervus eldi eldi) or Sangai(dancing deer) in Manipuri language (to distinguish it from the other two sub species found in Burma and Thailand that are called Cervus eldii thamin and Cervus eldii siamensis and also in Cambodia, China, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam and Hianan island). It has a pride of place in the folklore and culture of the Manipur state and is the national animal of the state.

14.Which among the following awards has been recently institued by the Government of India for individuals or communities from rural areas that have shown extraordinary courage and dedication in protecting Wildlife?
[A]Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar
[B]Medini Puruskar Yojana
[C]Amrita Devi Bishnoi Award
[D]Pitambar Pant National Award

Option [C]
This award is given for significant contribution in the field of wildlife protection, which is recognised as having shown exemplary courage or having done exemplary work for the protection of wildlife. A cash award of Rupees One lakh is presented to individuals/institutions involved in wildlife protection.

15.Which among the following chronic lung disease commonly known as ‘black lung’ disease,leads to reduced life expectancy in coal-miners?
[A]Pneumoconiosis
[B]Progressive Massive Fibrosis
[C]Mesothelioma
[D]Collier’s Asthma

Option [A]
A chronic occupational lung disease contracted by the prolonged breathing of coal mine dust. The silica and carbon in the coal dust cause black lung disease. About one of every 20 miners studied in the US has X-ray evidence of black lung disease, a form of pneumoconiosis. In its early stages, called simple pneumoconiosis, the disease does not prevent the miner from working or carrying on most normal activities. In some miners, the disease never becomes more severe. Pneumoconiosis is not reversible. There is no specific treatment. Black lung disease has gone by many names, including anthracosis, black lung, black spittle, coal worker’s pneumoconiosis, miner’s asthma, and silicosis.