GKToday – Indian Polity Fundamentals


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The content of this e-book is divided into below 10 chapters. Each chapter has reference articles from GKToday website and content is dynamic.

Indian Polity-1: Constituent Assembly & Preamble

Written / unwritten and codified / uncodified constitutions, Constituent Assembly – members, elections, meetings, committees, drafting Committee – members, Provisions of Constitution that came into immediate effect on 26 November 1949, contents of various parts and schedules, sources of various parts, Preamble – its relevance.

Indian Polity-2: Union & Its Territories, Citizenship

Meaning of Union of India. Creation of New States and Alternation of Boundaries, Provisions Regarding acquisition and cessation of Territories, Citizenship act and various ways of getting and losing citizenship of India.

Indian Polity-3: Fundamental Rights and Duties, DPSP

Swaraj Bill 1895, Swaraj Constitution, Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Sapru Committee Recommendations, Definition of state in article 12, Fundamental Rights against state and individuals, Self-executory rights, legal rights versus fundamental rights, Doctrine of Severability, Difference between equality of law and equal protection of law, Six basic freedoms, Ex-Post facto Law, Doctrine of Double Jeopardy, Self Incrimination Law, Right to Life and Implied Fundamental Rights, Procedure established by law versus due process of law, Rights of arrested person, Freedom of religion, Supreme Court and High Court in Issuing writs, Meaning and Types of Writs, Fundamental Rights of Armed Forces and Police Forces, Suspension of Fundamental Rights, Changes made by 86th Amendment Act in constitution, Important Directive Principles, Gandhian Principles enshrined in DPSP, Fundamental Duties.

Indian Polity-4: Union Legislature and Executive

Components of Union Executive and Union Legislature, President -electoral college, Impeachment, Appointments made by president, Nomination of MPs, conditions of Giving assent to bills, bills that need prior recommendation of President, Pardoning Powers, Comparison of Pardoning Power of President and Governor, Role of Union Government and Supreme Court in Pardoning Power, Ordinance Making Powers of President, Life of an ordinance, Reports and Statements get by President to be laid before parliament, Vice President, CoM as real executive, Principle of Collective Responsibility, Bodies of which Prime Minister is Chairman, Types of Ministers, Appointment and remuneration, functions of Attorney General, Attorney General versus Advocate General, Solicitor General and Law Minister, Allocation of Seats in Rajya Sabha, Election of MPs, Qualifications and disqualifications of MPs, Anti-defection law, Lok Sabha Speaker, Deputy Speaker, Speaker Pro Tem, Deputy Chairman, Casting Vote, Adjournment and Prorogation, Comparison between Adjournment, Prorogation and Dissolution, Question Hour and Types of Questions, Half-an-hour, Zero Hour, Types of Motions, Closure versus Guillotine, Calling Attention versus Adjournment Motion, No-Confidence Motion, Comparison of No-confidence motion and Censure Motion, Government Bill versus Private Member Bill, Joint Sittings, Money Bill v/s Finance Bill, Budget Procedure, Cut Motions, Votable and No-Votable Charges, Charged Expenditures, Types of Majorities, Parliamentary Committees and Forums, Delimitation and Amendment of 2002.

Indian Polity-5: States and Union Territories

Appointment of Governor, Conditions of Office of Governor, tenure and doctrine of pleasure, Appointments done by Governor, Governor’s powers with regard to state legislature and bills, Ordinance Making Powers, Judicial Powers, Discretionary Powers of the Governor, Special Responsibilities of Governor, Comparison of India’s President and Governor of an Indian State, Legislative Council – Strength and Members, Duration, Creation and Abolition of Legislative Council, MLAs- Qualification and Disqualifications, Advocate General, Union Territories, Power of Parliament to create local legislatures, Special Provisions with respect to Delhi.

Indian Polity-6: Judiciary

Number of Judges in Supreme Court, Appointment of the Judges, Qualification, Tenure and Removal of Judges, Post Retirement Jobs for Supreme Court Judges, Ad Hoc Judges, Original Jurisdiction, Appellate Jurisdiction, Advisory Jurisdiction, Special Leave Petition, Provisions for Independence of Supreme Court, Appointment and Removal of High Court Judges, Post retirement Jobs for High Court Judges, Jurisdiction of the High Courts.

Indian Polity-7: Local Bodies, Scheduled and Tribal Areas

Local Government in Seventh Schedule, Gram Sabha, Three Tiers of Panchayati Raj, Reservation in Panchayats, Disqualification of Panchayat Members, Finance Commission for Panchayats, 11th Schedule, Elections and bar upon court in Panchayat election matters, Three Kinds of Municipalities, Ward Committees, Elections, Reservation of Seats, 12th Schedule, Committee for District Planning, Notified Area Committee, Town Area Committee, Cantonment Board etc. 97th amendment, Scheduled Area and Tribal Areas, Tribal Advisory Councils, Autonomous District and Regional Councils, Powers of these councils, Power of Governor with respect to 5th and 6th schedule areas, Provisions of PESA Act, Gram Sabha powers in PESA Act.

Indian Polity-8: Constitutional Bodies, Amendment & Emergency

Finance Commission – Members, Functions, Report; Tribunals – Establishment, Functions, Jurisdiction, Appeal; Election Commission – Appointment, Removal, Powers and Functions; National Commissions of SCs and STs, Inter-state Council, Emergency Provisions, Article 370, its implications, Amendment of the Constitution, Services under the Union and States, Official Languages, Eighth Schedule.

Indian Polity-9: Special Provisions and Important Facts

Immunity Provisions for President and Governor, Size of ministry for smaller states, Privy Purse, Special power of president in context with major ports and aerodromes, Extraordinary emergency powers of President as per Article 365, Special Provisions for Nagaland, Assam, Manipur etc. Provisions regarding Linguistic Minorities, Members of First Cabinet of India, Exclusive Powers of Rajya Sabha, The Constitutional Functionaries within / outside Doctrine of Pleasure, International Relations in Constitution, Whip, Shadow Cabinet, Railway Convention Committee, Bills / Motions that can be introduced only in Lok Sabha, Parliament House Estate, Provisions Regarding SCs and STs in Constitution, Fundamental Rights for Citizens and Foreigners, Martial Law Versus National Emergency.

Indian Polity-10: Important Non-constitutional and Statutory Bodies

Law Commission of India, Niti Aayog, Lokpal and Lokayukta, Gram Nyayalayas, Zonal Councils, North Eastern Council, National Green Tribunal, National Integration Council, National Commission for Women, National Commission on Minorities, National Dairy Development Board, The National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC), Coconut Development Board (CDB), The Airports Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA), Competition Commission of India, Press council of India, Inland Waterways Authority of India, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority, Central Pollution Control Board, Medical Council of India, National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority, Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC), The Central Wakf Council, Intellectual Property Appellate Board, MPEDA / APEDA, EIC, Commodity Boards, NDMA, AICTE, NHAI, National commission for Safai Karamcharis.


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