Cold War and Other Major Events of 20th Century


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                                                                                                                                                                            1. What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain's self-image as a world power?
                                                                                                                                                                            2. "Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia was trigger for Arab Spring. However the post revolution path of Tunisia was very different compared to other nations affected by Arab Spring."Explain.
                                                                                                                                                                            3. "Success of democracy is based on civil society organisations and the legitimacy of political organisations."Discuss giving reference to democratic transition in Tunisia. What lessons in this context India can learn? Opine.
                                                                                                                                                                            4. The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western -educated Africans. Examine.
                                                                                                                                                                            5. The process of political radicalization in Syria was initiated during the era of the French mandate, the legacy of which was almost a guarantee of Syria's political instability. Discuss
                                                                                                                                                                            6. To what extent, the fear of communism was responsible for rise of Mussolini in Italy in 1922? Discuss
                                                                                                                                                                            7. What do you understand by the so called "Détente" during 1970s and 1980s? Why it is said that Détente's was a one-way street that the Soviet Union used to pursue its aims?
                                                                                                                                                                            8. Explain why relations between the European states were so full of tensions in the early years of the twentieth century.
                                                                                                                                                                            9. In what ways did the Marshall Plan, the dividing of Berlin, the communist takeover of power in Czechoslovakia, and the formation of NATO contribute to the development of the Cold War?
                                                                                                                                                                            10. How accurate is it to talk about a 'thaw' in the Cold War in the years after 1953?
                                                                                                                                                                            11. What were the causes of the Cuban missiles crisis? How was the crisis resolved and what were its consequences?
                                                                                                                                                                            12. Assess the reasons why Berlin was a major source of tension in the Cold War from 1948 to 1961.
                                                                                                                                                                            13. How important was the Marshall Plan in bringing about the recovery of Western Europe between 1947 and 1951?
                                                                                                                                                                            14. (a) Explain why war broke out in Korea in June 1950 and why the USA became involved? (b) What were the outcomes and the effects of the war in Korea?
                                                                                                                                                                            15. Why was there a period of detente during the 1970s and 1980s and in what ways did detente manifest itself?
                                                                                                                                                                            16. 'There can be little doubt that the social, economic and humanitarian work of the UN has been far more successful and valuable than its peacekeeping role.' Assess the validity of this verdict on the work of the United Nations Organization.
                                                                                                                                                                            17. To what extent would it be true to say that the UN has been more successful in dealing with conflicts since 1990 than it was during the Cold War?
                                                                                                                                                                            18. Assess the evidence for and against the view that the European Economic Community became stronger after its enlargement in 1973.
                                                                                                                                                                            19. Why and in what ways did the states of Western Europe see closer relations with each other after the Second World War?
                                                                                                                                                                            20. In what ways and for what reasons did Britain's attitude to Europe change during the period 1945 to 1991?
                                                                                                                                                                            21. Assess the reasons why two German states emerged between 1945 and 1949.
                                                                                                                                                                            22. How similar were the causes and consequences of the Hungarian uprising of 1956 and the Prague Spring of 1968?
                                                                                                                                                                            23. Why and with what results did the Arabs and Israelis fight the wars of 1967 and 1973?
                                                                                                                                                                            24. Terrorism and violence rather than peaceful diplomacy. How far would you agree with this view of the activities of the PLO in the Middle East in the period 1973 to 1995?
                                                                                                                                                                            25. How successful was President Nasser as leader of Egypt?
                                                                                                                                                                            26. 'The USA and the USSR intervened in the Middle East in the period 1956 to 1979 purely to preserve political and economic stability in the region.' How valid do you think this view is?
                                                                                                                                                                            27. Assess the reasons why the Six-Day War of 1967 was followed by the Yom Kippur War only three years later.
                                                                                                                                                                            28. Examine the evidence for and against the view that in the early twenty-first century, the world was witnessing a 'civilization struggle' between Islam and the West.
                                                                                                                                                                            29. Explain why the ending of the Cold War was not followed by a period of world peace and stability.
                                                                                                                                                                            30. Explain why Afghanistan has played such an important role in international relations since 1979.
                                                                                                                                                                            31. Explain what changes and problems were experienced by Japan in the years after 1990.
                                                                                                                                                                            32. Khrushchev believed that communism in the USSR could be reformed and modernized and made more efficient. How far had this been achieved by 1970?
                                                                                                                                                                            33. The USSR remained politically and socially stable in the years 1964 to 1982 despite the policies of the Brezhnev era.' How far would you agree with this view?
                                                                                                                                                                            34. 'A total and unmitigated disaster.' How far would you agree with this comment on the policies of Mao Xedong and the Chinese Communist Party during the period 1949-60?
                                                                                                                                                                            35. The Cultural revolution of 1966-9 was an attempt by Mao Zedong to protect his own power and position rather than a genuine battle of ideas."To what extent do you think this is a fair verdict on Mao's Cultural Revolution?
                                                                                                                                                                            36. Explain how Korea came to be divided into two separate states during the period 1945-53?
                                                                                                                                                                            37. 'Half a century of disaster for the people of North Korea'. How far would you agree with this verdict on Kim ll-sung's period of rule in North Korea?
                                                                                                                                                                            38. What problems were faced the government of Vietnam in the years following its unification in 1976? How and with what success did the government' policies change after 1986?
                                                                                                                                                                            39. Assess the contribution of Prince Sihanouk to the development of Cambodia in the years 1954 to 1970. Explain why he was overthrown in March 1970?
                                                                                                                                                                            40. Trace the steps by which Cambodia became a victim of the Cold War in the period 1967 to 1991?
                                                                                                                                                                            41. Explain why and how Laos came under communist rule in the period 1954 to 1975. How successful had the government been in rebuilding Laos by the end of the twentieth century?
                                                                                                                                                                            42. Consider the view that if Gorbachev had followed different policies, the USSR could have survived, in the same way that communism survived in China.
                                                                                                                                                                            43. Explain what impact the First World War and the Bolshevik revolution in Russia had on politics and society in the USA in the years 1914 to 1929.
                                                                                                                                                                            44. In what ways did African Americans campaign for civil rights in the years before the Great Depression? How did they respond to the activities of the Ku Klux Klan?
                                                                                                                                                                            45. Explain why unemployment was a major problem in the USA during the 1930s, and why the problem was reduced in the years 1939-43.
                                                                                                                                                                            46. Explain why there was opposition to President Roosevelt's New Deal. How successful do you think these critics were in the period 1933 to 1941?
                                                                                                                                                                            47. Explain why Franklin D. Roosevelt won the presidential election of 1932. How successful were the New Deal policies in relieving the depression in rural areas During the years 1933 to 1941?
                                                                                                                                                                            48. How accurate do you think it is to talk about the ' First' and 'Second' New Deals? How successful had Roosevelt's policies been in solving the economic problem of the USA by 1941?
                                                                                                                                                                            49. How far would you agree with the view that Johnson's administration was largely a failure because of US involvement in the Vietnam War?
                                                                                                                                                                            50. Explain why there was such a powerful anti-communist movement in the USA in the years following the Second World War. How important was Senator Joseph McCarthy's role in the movement
                                                                                                                                                                            51. Explain why Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam.
                                                                                                                                                                            52. The growth of radicalism among African Americans was important in helping them to gain their civil rights during the 1960s. Explain whether you agree or disagree with this view.
                                                                                                                                                                            53. Explain why the "March on Washington"took place in 1963.
                                                                                                                                                                            54. The use of non-violence was the most important reason for African Americans gaining improved civil rights in the years 1960-8. How far would you agree with this statement?
                                                                                                                                                                            55. Critics have sometimes described the presidencies of Jimmy Carter (1977-81) and George Bush (1989- 93) as completely ineffective. Explain whether you think this is a fair criticism.
                                                                                                                                                                            56. In what ways can the Clinton administration (1993- 2001) be judged a success? Explain why in spite of his successes, Clinton was impeached towards the end of his presidency.
                                                                                                                                                                            57. Explain what was meant by 'Reaganomics', the term used to describe President Reagan's economic policies. How successful were these policies.
                                                                                                                                                                            58. The presidency of George W. Bush has been described as one long disaster. How far do you think this verdict is justified?
                                                                                                                                                                            59. Without de Gaulle's masterly handling of the situation, the Algerian crisis would probably have plunged France into Civil war. How far would you agree with this verdict on President de Gaulle's contribution to the events leading to Algerian independence?
                                                                                                                                                                            60. Decolonization did not bring the benefits for the majority of the African people which they had hoped for. Explain why you agree or disagree with this assessment of decolonization in Africa.
                                                                                                                                                                            61. Indian independence was not a gift from the British: it was the hard-won fruit of struggle and sacrifice. Explain whether you think this is an accurate verdict on India's progress towards independence.
                                                                                                                                                                            62. Explain why it was thought necessary to divide India, creating the separate state of Pakistan.
                                                                                                                                                                            63. Assess the reasons for the growth of nationalism in the European colonies after the second world war. How important was nationalism in bringing about decolonization?
                                                                                                                                                                            64. Explain why the newly independent states in Africa suffered so many problems and assess to what extent the problems were of their own making.
                                                                                                                                                                            65. How accurate do you think it is to describe Angola as 'a victim of the Cold War' during the years 1975 to 2002?
                                                                                                                                                                            66. Explain why Robert Mugabe was regarded as a hero in Zimbabwe in the years 1980 to 1990, but had to face increasing opposition after 1990.
                                                                                                                                                                            67. Assess the reasons why J. J. Rawlings was more successful as president of Ghana than Kwame Nkrumah.
                                                                                                                                                                            68. How far would you agree that the Belgians should bear most of the responsibility for the outbreak of civil war in the Congo in 1960 and its continuation until 1965?
                                                                                                                                                                            69. Why was apartheid in South Africa brought to an end, and how successfully did the ANC govern the country up until 2009?
                                                                                                                                                                            70. What were the problems facing the countries of Latin America at the end of the Second World War? Explain why progress in solving these problems was so slow.
                                                                                                                                                                            71. In what ways and with what motives USA was involved in the affairs of Latin America during the Second Half of the twentieth century?
                                                                                                                                                                            72. The cold war was to have profound effects on the economic and political systems of Latin America. How far do you agree?
                                                                                                                                                                            73. The election of Hugo Chavez as president of Venezuela in 1998 was the beginning of a left-wing revolution that was to transform Latin America over the next decade. Explain what happened in this transformation. Do you think this statement is an accurate assessment of recent events in Latin America, or is it an exaggeration?
                                                                                                                                                                            74. What is meant by the term 'North-South divide? What attempts have been made since 1980 to close the gap between North and South, and how successful have they been?
                                                                                                                                                                            75. Assess the reasons why global warming is seen as such a serious problem for the world's future. To what extent do you think it is the twenty-first century's major problem?
                                                                                                                                                                            76. Explain why there was a 'crisis of capitalism' in the decade leading up to 2012.
                                                                                                                                                                            77. Explain the causes and consequences of the rapid growth in the world's population during the twentieth century.
                                                                                                                                                                            78. What methods were used to try to control population growth in the second half of the twentieth century, and why did some of them arouse criticism?
                                                                                                                                                                            79. Why was it that in the second half of the twentieth century the rate of population growth in Europe slowed down, while in America and other Third World areas it accelerated?
                                                                                                                                                                            80. Assess the reasons why the policies of Deng Xiaoping led to a period of crisis in 1987-89. How successfully did Deng deal with the crisis?
                                                                                                                                                                            81. The end of the cold war was a watershed moment in modern Indian history. Discuss the post-cold war foreign policy of India until dawn of new millennium
                                                                                                                                                                            82. Elucidate the factors that made British colonization more effective amongst their other European counterparts like France, Spain and Portugal.
                                                                                                                                                                            83. Discuss some of the important inventions and discoveries that took place during the 18th century. How these led to some of the major humanitarian reforms in the society?
                                                                                                                                                                            84. The American economic recovery act, also known as Marshall Plan, helped in the recovery of European states aftermath of WW2, but it is also blamed for dividing Europe into east and west block. Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                            85. Despite the fact that the Israel-Palestine conflict is rooted in history, it has been shaped in its modern form in the 20th century. Explain.
                                                                                                                                                                            86. What is the ‘Century of Humiliation’, often referred to in discussions about China? How has it shaped the foreign policy of China and its outlook towards the world?
                                                                                                                                                                            87. Disclaimer: These questions have been written and answered by GKToday team over the period of time; and have included some previous years questions also. While every effort was made to ensure that these questions as well as their answers remain relevent and correct, it is possible, that some facts or context in some questions might have changed over time. GKToday does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by such change of facts or context in the questions and answers of this E-book.

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