2018-CGS-35: Mains Revision-24:External Security
State sponsored terrorism against India
Pakistan based terrorist groups are bleeding India by sponsoring terrorist and militancy activities. The nexus between the state and non-state actors with an intention to bleed India is further complicating the security challenges of India.
Steps taken to address the challenge
- Providing with additional contingent for BSF to effectively man the borders with Pakistan.
- Govt implementing Madhukar Gupta committee recommendations to fill the gap in border management.
- Recognising of IB reports that terrorists and militants are aided by Pakistani army to infiltrate into India, government has gone into an aggressive strategy to effectively reply to any provocations of cross border firing.
- Strengthening of coast guard and navy to fight the infiltration across the sea route.
- Cornering Pakistan in international platforms like SAARC, UNO to pressurise Pakistan to act against terrorist groups.
- Trying to build consensus on international convention against terrorism to put an end to differentiation of good and bad terrorism.
- Building support across the globe to force Pakistan to act against the terrorist groups operating from its soil.
As a result of these measures there has been a significant improvement in the security situation of the country. But the increased cross border firing is impacting even the civilians residing across the border. The pro-Pakistan groups in the Kashmir have increased the attempts to destabilise Kashmir and build an anti-India narrative in the valley.
Addressing the challenge
- Internationally India has got great success with almost all countries except china is asking Pakistan to act against terrorist groups operating from its soil which even includes Gulf countries.
- US has even threatened to stop aid if Pakistan doesn’t act. India’s strategy to pressurise Pakistan by has met with decent success but Pakistan’s all weather ally China has became a bottle neck in ensuring a full pledged success for this Initiative.
- India must work on building consensus on the convention against terrorism more aggressively. Putting an end to differentiating tendencies as good and bad terrorism can be of great strength for India in fight against terrorism.
History or geography which is aggravating the security challenges at borders?
India shares about 15000Kms of the land boundary with its neighboring countries. An effective border management which is vital for national security is facing complex challenges.
- India-Pakistan border is guarded by BSF. The historic reasons like partition, Kashmir issue, unscientific approach by Boundary commission headed by Radcliff has made India-Pakistan border a theater for the rivalry between the two nations.
- India’s border with Pakistan passes through diverse geographical areas and terrains. It passes through Kachchh region in Gujarat, desert in Rajasthan, Fertile plains in Punjab, Mountains, Valleys and snow capped peaks in Jammu and Kashmir and also many rivers crossover from India to Pakistan along the border.
- These diverse terrain and geographical conditions are creating bottlenecks for the effective management of borders.
- India-China border is guarded by ITBP.
- The refusal of china to accept the McMahan line as the border with India is often causing rifts in the relationship. This has even resulted in frequent transgressions by Chinese army into Indian Territory.
- The border with China passes through Himalayan region that is through high peaks and deep valleys. As a result the security challenge along the India-China border is a complex one.
- India-Bangladesh border is guarded by BSF.
- India’s border along the Bangladesh was demarcated by the Radcliff committee. The unscientific approach with little concern to ground realities has resulted in many open and porous regions along the border.
- The border with Bangladesh is passing through Plain regions with high density of population.
- The border is also crossed by many rivers. At many places river itself constitutes the border. Thus making border management a challenge to tackle.
- India-Nepal border is guarded by SSB.
- India has an open border with Nepal due to the historic treaty of Peace and friendship. These open borders are often misused by militant and terrorist groups to mount attacks against India.
- India Nepal Border passes largely through Plain areas, Terai region and Himalayas. Many rivers cross over from Nepal to India. These open borders are exploited by the terrorist groups which are creating challenges for India.