Archive: UPSC Current General Studies (CGS) Documents

The CGS documents provided by GKToday as one of the components of Target Programmes for UPSC Civil Services Examinations from 2012 to 2018 have been archived here. If you are preparing for UPSC-2020 and beyond, similar CGS documents are located here.

2018-CGS-35: Mains Revision-24:External Security

State sponsored terrorism against India Pakistan based terrorist groups are bleeding India by sponsoring terrorist and militancy activities. The nexus between the state and non-state actors with an intention to bleed India is further complicating the security challenges of India. Steps taken to address the challenge Border...

2018-CGS-34: Mains Revision-23: Internal Security

Indian Refugee Policy and Internal Security Refugees are the people who have been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster. The tough stance of the government against Rohingya refugees who are referred as world’s most persecuted minorities is put into question in the Supreme...

2018-CGS-33: Mains Revision-22: Environment & Disaster Management

Ozone Pollution Ozone has molecular composition of O3. The presence of ozone in the stratosphere protects the humans against the harmful effects of ultra violet radiations. But the ozone at ground level is considered as a pollutant. This is referred as ozone pollution. Formation of ozone at ground level The ground level...

2018-CGS-32: Mains Revision-21: Current Topics in Science & Technology

Patent Exclusivity And Secondary Patents Patent Exclusivity: It refers to monopoly for manufacturing and marketing of the patented product for certain number of years. Secondary patents: After obtaining the primary patent the companies file patents for the derivatives and variants, new dosage regimen, new method of...

2018-CGS-31: Mains Revision -19: Ports, Roads, Railways and Civil Aviation Sectors

Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Mobility as a service (MaaS) or Transport as a service (TaaS) is the integration of various forms of transport services into a single mobility service accessible on demand. It is a shift away from the personally-owned modes of transportation towards mobility solutions that are consumed as a...

2018-CGS-30: Mains Revision-18: Energy Sector

Challenges For Power Sector Of India The geography and its natural resources like hydel energy, wind energy provides India with enormous potential. But still 240 million people in the country don’t have access to electricity. Bottlenecks to unleash the potential Various roadblocks for India in unleashing the potential...

2018-CGS-29: Mains Revision-17: Secondary Sector of Economy

Economic Growth in Post-Reforms Period Indian growth story in the post reform period is criticised for not being inclusive. The various loopholes of the post-reform growth strategy are The pattern of development has aggravated inter-state inequality, widened rural-urban disparity and worsened intra-rural and intra-urban...