Who were the pioneers in two opposite school of thoughts of environmental determinism and possibilism??

Friedrich Ratzel, a German Geographer is most widely considered as the pioneer of school of thought of environmental determinism. He is also known as father of human Geography and coined the term Lebensraum (“living space”). His main work was Anthropogeography or Outline of the influences of the Geographical Environment upon History. He stressed the extent to which man lives under the nature’s laws. According to him, the cultural forms had been adapted and determined by the forces of nature.

Alfred Hettner, a German Geographer known for his concept of chorology (the study of places and regions) is most widely considered as one of the pioneers of school of thought of Possibilism. However, even earlier than him, a French geographer Paul Vidal de la Blache , became the first active advocate of possibilism. Some other advocates were Jean Brunches, Isaiah Bowman and Carl Sauer. French historian Lucien Febvre was the first who coined the term possibilism and contrasted it with environmental determinism.



  • Absalom

    precise n concise. i love it.