What are the circumstances under which the joint liability arises?

The joint liability arises under three circumstances:-

(1) Agency, when one person employs another to do an act which turns out to be a tort.

(2)Vicarious liability, i.e., the liability arising from relations, such as master and servant, principal and agent, guardian and ward etc.

(3) Joint action – where two or more persons combine together to commit an act which amounts to a tort.