Separation of Khilafat leaders: Kakinada session 1923
There was another dangerous outcome of the sudden withdrawal of the Non Cooperation Movement. The direction less leadership actually disintegrated and now the communal elements became a permanent feature of the Indian Politics. In September 1924, some Hindus were killed in the North West Frontier Province. In April and July 1926. there were Hindu Muslim riots in Calcutta in which some 150 people lost their lives. Between 1923-27, there were a lot of communal riots in India. Delhi, Patna, Rawalpindi, Dhaka, Calcutta and Punjab got affected.
The marriage of Khilafat movement and Congress soon ended into a divorce. The 1923 Kakinada session of Congress was presided by Maulana Mohammad Ali and soon after this session he split from the Congress citing the communal riots. The seeds of this schism were sown by the Government of India Act 1919, which broadened the franchise but preserved the system of separate electorates .
- In Muslims, there was a growth of the Tabligh and Tanzims.
- Among Hindus, the Arya Samajis started Shuddi sangathans. The leader of the Arya Samajis was Swami Shraddhanad who was murdered later in 1926 in Delhi.