Remote Sensing in India

India’s Remote Sensing starts following the successful demonstration flights of Bhaskara-1 and Bhaskara-2 satellites launched in 1979 and 1981, respectively, with the to development of indigenous Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite program. Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite system was commissioned with the launch of IRS-1A, in 1988. With eleven satellites in operation, IRS is the largest civilian remote sensing satellite constellation in the world providing imageries in a variety of spatial resolutions, spectral bands and swaths. Data from Indian Remote Sensing satellites are used for various applications of resources survey and management under the National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS in following:

  1. Preharvest crop area and production estimation of major crops.
  2. Drought/irrigation monitoring and assessment based on vegetation condition.
  3. Flood risk zone mapping and flood damage assessment.
  4. Hydro-geomorphologic maps for locating underground water resources for drilling well.
  5. Snow-melt run-off estimates for planning water use in down stream projects.
  6. Land use and land cover mapping.
  7. Urban planning.
  8. Forest survey.
  9. Wetland mapping.
  10. Environmental impact analysis
  11. Mineral Prospecting.
  12. Coastal studies.

India’s Recent IRS satellites

  • 2012: Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) imaging of the surface features during both day and night under all weather conditions.
  • 2011: Megha-Tropiques, for studying the water cycle and energy exchanges in the tropics.
  • 2011: RESOURCESAT-2 to continue the remote sensing data services to global users provided by RESOURCESAT-1, and to provide data with enhanced multispectral and spatial coverage as well.
  • 2010: Cartosat-2B to provide multiple spot scene imageries. It is capable of imaging a swath (geographical strip) of 9.6 km with a resolution of better than 1 metre.
  • 2009: Oceansat-2 is to provide continuity of Oceansat (IRS-P4) with enhanced application potential.
  • 2009: Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-2) is capable of taking earth images in all weather.
  • 2008: IMS-1, previously referred to as TWSat (Third World Satellite), is a low-cost microsatellite imaging mission of ISRO.
  • 2008: CARTOSAT – 2A is the thirteenth satellite in the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite series (IRS).
  •  2007: CARTOSAT-2, launched by PSLV-C7 on January 10, 2007, is the twelfth in the Indian Remote Sensing.
  • 2005: CARTOSAT – 1 is the first Indian Remote Sensing Satellite capable of providing in-orbit stereo images.
  • 2003: RESOURCESAT-1 is the tenth satellite of ISRO in IRS series