Quick Fact Sheet : Jainism

1. In Jainism, a Tirthankar or Jina is a human being who achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge) through asceticism and who then becomes a role-model teacher for those seeking spiritual guidance.
2. Rishabhdev was the first Jain Tirthankara. He was the father of Chakravarti King of India “Bharat”. Rishabhdev name was first described in Srimad Bhagwat (Rigveda). He died in Attaway or Kailash Mountain. His symbol is bull.
3. Jainism is often referred to as Jain Dharmaor Shraman Dharma or the religion of Nirgantha or religion of “Vratyas” by ancient texts.
4. Bhagwan Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism. Mahavir was the 24th and last Tirthankara of Jainism. He was born in 599 BC near Vaishali in Kundagrama. Mahavira belonged to Jnantrik Dynasty. He got enlightened under a Sal Tree. He got kaivalya (death) on the bank of Rijupalika River. Diwali, was the nirvana day of Lord Mahavira . Name of his mother was Trishala who was siter of the King Chetak of Lichchavi. Sudharaman was the chief of Jainism after death of Mahavira. Final compilation of Mahavira teachings took place in 5th or 6th century AD. Jain works were compiled in Vallabhi.
5. There are five categories of devotees in Jainism:
Tirthankara : One who has attained Nirvana
Arhat : One who is about to attain nirvana
Upadhaya: Saint Teacher
Acharya : Head of the Ascetic Group
Sadhu: rest public
6. Jain Sangha is devided into two main sects Digambar and Svetambar. Digambars remain nude and Svetambar remain in white clothes. Mahavir swami gave suggestion to the Digambara to remain nude.
7. First Jain Council was in 300BC under the chairmanship of Sthulbhadra.
8. Second jain council was at Vallabhi in 512 AD. Vallabhi is in Modern Gujrat and was headed by Devardhi Kshamasemana.
9. Somprata who was Ashoka’s son had accepted Jainism.
10. Mahavira didn’t believe in the existence of God. Jains believe that every soul is divine and has the potential to achieve God-consciousness. Any soul which has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of supreme being is called jina (Conqueror or Victor). Jainism is the path to achieve this state.
11. Supreme Principal in Jainism is Ahimsa or non violence. The ultimate goal is realization of Nirvana which is called kaivalya.
12. There are no preists in Jainism. Only monks and nuns are there. Principal doctrine is of Purva.
13. There are five vows of Jainism:
• Ahimsa (Non-violence)
• Satya (truth)
• Achaurya or Asteya (non-stealing)
• Brahmacharya (Celibacy)
• Aparigraha (Non-attachment to temporal possessions)
14. Parshvanath was 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism. He became ascetic at the age of 30 years. Parshvanath got enlightment on Sammeya Mountain. His symbol is snake. Parshvanath has been described as God by Gosvami Tulsidas. Jin Kalpa Religion was discovered by Parshvanath.
15. There are Three Tri-Ratnas of Jainism. Samyak Gyan, Samyak Darshan and Samyak Acharan.
16. There are 12 angas of Jainism.
17. There are 18 crimes in Jainism.
18. Bhadrabahu wrote Nirukitis, the doctrine of Jainism.
19. Kalpsutra is the biography of Tirthankara in Jainism.
20. Jinasena and Guna Bhadra composed Mahapurana.
21. Tatwarthadhigam was composed by Uma swami.
22. Jain Fasting :
1. Uttam: Renounce all worldly things including food & water on the day of fasting and eat only once on the eve & next day of fasting.
2. Madhyam: Food & water is not taken on the day of fast.
3. Jaghanya: Eat only once on the day.
During fasting a person immerses himself in religious activities (worshiping, serving the saints & be in their proximity, reading scriptures, Tapa, and donate to the right candidates – Supatra).
23. Eight auspicious symbols (The Asta Mangalas). Their names are (in series of pictures)
Swastika -Signifies peace and well-being
Shrivatsa -A mark manifested on the centre of the Jina’s chest, signifying a pure soul.
Nandyavartya -Large swastika with nine corners
Vardha­manaka -A shallow earthen dish used for lamps, suggests an increase in wealth, fame and merit due to a Jina’s grace.
Bhadrasana -Throne, considered auspicious because it is sanctified by the blessed Jina’s feet.
Kalasha -Pot filled with pure water signifying wisdom and completeness
Minayugala -A fish couple. It signifies Cupid’s banners coming to worship the Jina after defeating the God of Love
Darpana -The mirror reflects one’s true self because of its clarity

List Of Jain Tirthankars:

TirthankarHeavenSymbolMale / Female disciple
I. Lord Rishabha (Adinath)Sarvarthasiddhabull or oxPundarika;
II. AjitnathVijayavimanaelephantSimhasena;
III. SambhavanathUvarimagraivekahorseCharu;
IV. AbhinandannathJayantavimanamonkeyVajranabha;
V. SumatinathJayantavimanacurlew or
red goose
VI. PadmaprabhaUvarimagraivekalotusPradyotana;
VII. SuparshvanathMadhyamagraivekaswastikaVidirbha;
VIII. ChandraprabhaVijayantamoonDinna;
IX. PushpadantaAnatadevalokaCrocodileVarahaka;
X. SheetalnathAchyutadevalokaKalpavrikshaNanda;
XI. ShreyansanathAchyutadevalokarhinocerosKasyapa;
XII. VasupujyaPranatadevalokafemale buffaloSubhuma;
XIII. VimalnathMahasaradevalokapigMandara;
XIV. AnantnathPranatadevalokaporcupineJasa ;
XV. DharmanathVijayavimanavajraArishta;
XVI. ShantinathSarvarthasiddhadeerChakrayuddha;
XVII. KunthunathSarvarthasiddhagoatSamba;
XVIII. AranathSarvarthasiddhafish or
XIX. MallinathJayantadevalokajar or KalasaAbhikshaka;
XX. MunisuvrataAparajita-devalokatortoiseMalli;
XXI. Nami NathaPranatadevalokablue water-lily or blue lotusSubha;
XXII. NeminathaAparajitaconchVaradatta;
XXIII. ParshvanathPranatadevalokasnakeAryadinna;
XXIV. MahaviraPranatadevalokalionIndrabhuti;

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  • Anand

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  • kareem

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  • Prashant

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