Pashupata Shaivism is the oldest of the major Shaivite schools. The philosophy of Pashupata sect was systematized by Lakulish or Nakuliśa in the 2nd century A.D. The main texts of the school are Gaṇakārikā, Pañchārtha bhāshyadipikā and Rāśikara-bhāshya. Pashupata Shaivism was a devotional (bhakti) and ascetic movement. Pashu in Pashupati refers to the effect (or created world), the word designates that which is dependent on something ulterior. Whereas, Pati means the cause (or prinripium), the word designates the Lord, who is the cause of the universe, the pati, or the ruler. To free themselves from worldly fetters Pashupatas are instructed to do a pashupata vrata. This school exists since 1st century AD. It was influential once upon a time, now almost does not exist.