Metamorphic Rocks: Types and Examples

The mountain-building processes of the Earth’s crust involve tremendous pressures and high temperatures. These extreme conditions alter igneous or sedimentary rocks, transforming them into metamorphic rock. Thus, metamorphic rocks are formed from the pre-existing rocks within the Earth’s crust by changes in temperature and pressure and by chemical action of fluid. This means that Both the Igneous and Sedimentary socks undergo profound physical and chemical changes under the increased pressure and temperature. The process is called “metamorphism”. Some metamorphic Rocks are Schist, Gneiss, Slate, Quartzite, Marble and  Granite.

There are two basic types of metamorphic rocks:

  • Foliated metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, phyllite, schist and slate which have a layered or banded appearance that is produced by exposure to heat and directed pressure. This is called Foliation.
  • Non-foliated metamorphic rocks such as marble and quartzite which do not have a layered or banded appearance.

In the surface environment, rocks weather into sediment. In the deep environment, heat and pressure transform sediment into rock that is eventually exposed at the surface.

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