List of Nobel laureates of India
Ronald Ross, born in Almora, India, in 1857 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Rudyard Kipling –Literature
Rudyard Kipling, born in Mumbai, 1865, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1907. He remains the youngest-ever recipient and the first English-language writer to receive the Prize.
Rabindranath Tagore – Literature
Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941) received traditional education in India before travelling to England for further study. He abandoned his formal education and returned home, founding a school, Santiniketan, where children received an education in consonance with Tagore’s own ideas of communion with nature and emphasis on literature and the arts.
In time, Tagore’s works, written originally in Bengali, were translated into English; the Geetanjali (“Tribute in verse”), a compendium of verses, named ‘Song Offerings’ in English was widely acclaimed for its literary genius. In 1913, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was the first person of non-Western heritage to be awarded a Nobel Prize.
In protest against the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre, he resigned the knighthood that had been conferred upon him in 1915. Tagore holds the unique distinction of being the composer of the national anthems of two different countries, India and Bangladesh.
Abdus Salam –Physics
Abdus Salam (1926-1996), born in undivided Punjab and a citizen of Pakistan, and shared a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979, with Steven Weinberg, for his work on electroweak unification, one of the important puzzles of modern theoretical physics. He was a visionary and an advocate of science in the third world. He founded the International Center for Theoretical Physics, in Trieste, Italy, which has nurtured world class physicists through workshops, fellowships and conferences.
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman -Physics
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888–1970) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for the year 1930. He had been knighted only the year before and worked extensively on acoustics and light. He was also deeply interested in the physiology of the human eye. A traditionally-dressed man, he headed an institute that is today named after him: the Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. His nephew, the astrophysicist Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983 as a United States citizen.
Hargobind Khorana -Physiology
Hargobind Khorana (born 1922), a person of Indian origin, shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on genes. He had left India in 1945 and became a naturalised United States citizen in the 1970s. He continues to head a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States.
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar –Physics
Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983.
Mother Teresa –Peace
Mother Teresa (1910–1997) was born in Skopje, then a city in Ottoman Empire. She is of Albanian origin. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. Toiling for years in the slums of Kolkata (Calcutta), her work centred on caring for the poor and suffering, among whom she herself died.
V.S. Naipaul –Literature
A British writer, V.S. Naipul (Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul) was born in 1932 into a family of north Indian descent living in Chaguanas, close to Port of Spain, on Trinidad. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001. In awarding him the Prize, the Swedish Academy praised his work “for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.”
Amartya Sen –Economics
Amartya Sen (born 1933) was the first Indian to receive the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, awarded to him in 1998 for his work on welfare economics. He has made several key contributions to research in this field, such as to the axiomatic theory of social choice; the definitions of welfare and poverty indexes; and the empirical studies of famine. All are linked by his interest in distributional issues and particularly in those most impoverishe. Whereas Kenneth Arrow’s “impossibility theorem” suggested that it was not possible to aggregate individual choices into a satisfactory choice for society as a whole, Sen showed that societies could find ways to alleviate such a poor outcome.