Karori / Crori System

Karori / Crori System was introduced by Raja Todar Mal under Mughal Emperor Akbar. All the Parganas and fiscal unions of the nation were to be measured and every piece of land which produced revenue worth 1 crore was to be placed under the officer known as Crori. Thus the measurement of the lands in towns, hills deserts, jungles, rivers, reservoirs was started. The measurement began from Fatahpur and first Crori was named Adampur.

The result was not good as expected. Much of the land was waste and the rapacity of the croris was good enough to make the peasants sell their wives and children. The rules were made but were not monitored. Many people lost lives due to torture of the revenue officers.

The determination of current prices and rates of collection was one of the most arduous task for Akbar because the extent of empire was big and administrative machinery was new. However despite the difficulties, entire land – whether dry or irrigated; whether in towns or hills or deserts or jungle; was measured in all the Parganas. {Pargana: Fiscal Union of Akbar’s administration}

To make the collection of revenue efficient, every piece of land large enough to give revenue of Once Crore Tanka was divided off and put under an special officer called Karori / Crori.

Tanka & Tanki

Kindly note that in Sultanate era Tanka referred to a Silver coin. In Shershah’s time, the place of the silver Tanka was taken by Rupiah, which was as it is adopted by Akbar and remained India’s currency unit till date. However, Akbar had transferred the names of Tanka to copper coins coined during his rule. One Tanka was equal to 2 Dams. Akbar also struck a coin called Tanki that was equal to 1/10th of Tanka)

The Crori was selected for his trustworthiness and not acquaintance with the revenue matters. The measurement of the land was started at Fatehpur Sikri and first Crore was named Adampur, next as Sethpur and so on after the patriarchs of those areas or names of prophets etc.

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