India’s National Flag

India’s National flag is a horizontal tri-colour of deep saffron (Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is 2:3. In the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel which has 24 spokes. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band. Its design is taken from that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath.

Meaning of three colours of National Flag

The saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation; the white stands for purity and truth and the green for faith and fertility.

Adoption of National Flag

Tricolor flag was first accepted by Indian National Congress in 1931. It had charkha in the center of the white band which was later replaced by Wheel taken from Sarnath Asoka pillar. The design of the national flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947. In the constituent assembly, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the head of the Ad hoc committee on National Flag. The flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya.

Flag Code of India

The Flag Code of India, 2002, has taken effect from 26 January 2002 and supersedes the ‘Flag Code – as it existed. The Flag Code of India, 2002 is an attempt to bring together all such laws, conventions, practices and instructions for the guidance and benefit of all concerned. As per current norms, there is no restriction on the display of the National Flag by members of general public, private organisations, educational institutions, etc., except to the extent provided in the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 and any other law enacted on the subject.

Bureau of Indian Standards is in charge of enforcement of the standards of the Indian Tricolor as per the provisions of the “Flag Code of India”.

State Emblem

The state emblem depicts four lions, standing back to back. It is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).

The Lion Capital was erected in the third century BC by Asoka to mark the spot where Buddha first delivered his sermon.

In the State emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view.

The four lions symbolizing power, courage and confidence, rest on a circular abacus. The abacus is girdled by four smaller animals — guardians of the four directions: the lion of the north, the elephant of the east, bull of the west and horse of the south {you can remember this by analogy NEWS→ LEBH}. The abacus rests on a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration.  The words Satyameva Jayate (meaning ‘truth alone triumphs’) from Mundaka Upanishad are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script. The use of the state emblem of India, as the official seal of the Government of India, is regulated by the state of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005.

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