Implementation of CBD in India
India has a long history of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, which is engrained in our ethos and is a way of life for us. This is reflected in an individual’s practices as well as social systems prevalent at different times in India’s history.
Environment protection is enshrined in the Constitution of India itself in Article 48 A and Article 51A (g).
National Biodiversity Action Plan
In pursuance to Article 6 of the CBD, India within five years of ratifying the Convention had developed a National Policy and Macro level Action Strategy on Biodiversity in 1999. After approval of the National Environment Policy (NEP) in 2006, the 1999 document was updated and revised as the National Biodiversity Action Plan which was approved by the Cabinet in 2008.
The NBAP 2008 draws upon the main principle in the NEP that human being are at the centre of concerns of sustainable development and they are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.
Biological Diversity Act
In pursuance to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), India had enacted the Biological Diversity Act in 2002 following a widespread consultative process over a period of eight years. The Biological Diversity Rules were noticed thereafter in 2004. The Act gives effect to the provisions of the CBD. It also addresses access to biological resources and associated traditional knowledge to ensure equitable sharing of benefits arising out of their use to the country and its people. India is one of the first few countries to have enacted such legislation. Twenty two State Biodiversity Boards have been established till date.
Biodiversity Management Committees
Setting up of BMCs by all local bodies within their areas, for the purpose of promoting conservation, sustainable use and document of biodiversity is an essential requirement under the Act. So far, 29,150 Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) have been set up in eight States.