Both Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are approximately 500 kms apart from each other. Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Dholavira are called the nucleus cities of the civilization. Since it was located on the old course of the Ravi River, the Harappans had easy access to trade networks, aquatic food as well as water for drinking and cultivation. This is one of the reasons that the Harappa was occupied for a long period of time. Harappa marked the meeting of the routes coming from the east leading to the Iranian plateau.
Harappa was an Indus civilization urban center. It lies in Punjab Province, Pakistan, on an old bank / bed of the River Ravi. The latest researches have revealed that the city was have been surrounded by extensive walls.
The archaeological sequence at Harappa is over 13 metres deep, spanning the period between the fourth and second millennium BCirca The historicans have defined the following five phases of chronology at Harappa:
- Ravi Aspect of the Hakra phase Circa 3300-2800 BC
- Kot Dijian (Early Harappan) phase Circa 2800-2600 BC
- Harappan Phase Circa 2600-1900 BC
- Transitional Phase Circa 1900-1800 BC
- Late Harappan Phase Circa 1800-1300 BC
Harappa was the first site of the civilization to be excavated in 1921. The excavation team was led by Daya Ram Sahni. Harappa was a gateway city and a meeting point of several routes. The material remains found at Harappa are typical Indus character which include the pottery, chert blades, copper or bronze implements, terracotta figurines, seals and sealing, weights, etc. Two rows of six granaries with brick platforms (total 12) have been found in Harappa. There have been evidences of coffin burial have been found. There are two mounds, western and Easter,
The western mound of Harappa represented a citadel which was 420 meters X 196 meters in area and on a elevated platform with the height of 13.7-15.2 meters and this citadel was reinforced by bastions. Outside this citadel have been found something like workmen’s quarters. 16 furnaces have been found with the cow dung ash and charcoal. A crucible used for smelting bronze was also found at Harappa.