Genomics and Personal Genomics
Genome refers to the genetic material of an organism and it comprises of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). It offers a blueprint for an organism’s structure and function and has all information necessary for life. Study of genome is called genomics. One of the basic disciplines in genomics is Genome sequencing which refers to know the order of four nucleotides or bases within DNA molecules. The four bases are Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T).
Genomics is different from genetics- because the latter primarily studies role of genes in inheritance. Genomics helps in understanding the entire genetic information of an organism.
Personal genomics is an area of genomics focusing specifically on the sequencing and analysis of one person’s genome, and then giving them their genomic information. In this, an individual’s genotype is compared with published literature / available data to establish the likelihood of the individual’s disease risk and trait expression. Personal genomics helps in uncovering a huge amount of information related to all aspects of an individual’s physiology – like their susceptibility to certain diseases and the way they respond to specific drugs.