Functions of Commercial Banks
The core functions commercial banks can be segregated into three main segments viz. Financial Intermediation, Payment System and Financial Services.
The key business of the banks is to accept different types of deposits from the public and then lend these funds to the borrowers. This is called Financial intermediation. In terms of the banks, the deposits represent the “liabilities” of the banks while loans advanced and investments made by banks represent their “assets”.
Acceptance of Deposits
Banks are called custodians of public money and mobilization of the deposits from the public is the most important function of the commercial banks. There are mainly two types of deposits viz. Time deposits (Term Deposits) and Demand Deposits. As custodians of public money, the banks provide security to the money and valuables of the general public. In India, the bank deposits are covered under the deposit insurance scheme provided by DICGC. For security of valuables banks provide locker facilities.
Loans and Advances
There are various types of loans or advances, which can be divided on the basis of different sets of criteria. More information about various types of lending operations in India, click here.
Payment refers to the transfer of an item of value from one party to another in exchange for goods or services or both; or to fulfil a legal obligation. In any economy, the banks are core to the payment systems. Banks not only enable transfer of money but also its mobilization. The basic method of financial transactions is by negotiable instruments such as cheques and drafts. In modern times, the electronic banking, wire transfers, real time settlements, internet banking etc. are various modes of financial transactions. Banks also enable the internal remittances, foreign exchange transactions, telegraphic transfers of money.
Apart from the above, Banks impart various financial services such as investment banking, insurance-related services, government-related business, foreign exchange businesses, wealth management services, etc. Banks also provide agency services to their customers which includes:
- Collection and payment of cheques and bills on behalf of customers.
- Collection of dividends, interest, rent etc. on behalf of customers, if so instructed by them.
- Purchase and sale of shares and securities on behalf of customers.
- Payment of rent, interest, insurance premium, subscriptions, on behalf of customers, if so instructed.
- Acting as a trustee or executor.
Various other functions of banks are as follows:
- Banks work as trustees for certain requirements of the businesses, governments and public.
- They issue Letter of credit for the purpose of facilitating trade.
- They help in the disbursement of the pension to pensioners.
- Enable Government to Government (G2G), Government to Corporate (G2C) transactions.
- Banks liaison with local government departments and government treasury.