Developments in Persia & Afghanistan during times of Lord Minto

Nadir Shah who is called the Napoleon of Persia had attacked South West of Afghanistan in 1736 and captured it. In next year, he captured Kandahar and in 1739, he defeated the Mughal army in the Battle of Karnal. Apart from being responsible for killing of 20-30 thousand innocent people he was also took the Peacock Throne & Koh-I-Noor and Darya-ye Noor diamonds. Nadir shah got assassinated in 1747. After the assassination of Nader Shah, Afghan again rose and under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali , (also known as Ahamad Shah Durrani) who was founder of Durrani Empire, modern Afghanistan was founded. Ahamad Shah abdali is called by the Pushtuns as Ahmad Shah Baba. He consolidated and enlarged Afghanistan. Defeated Mughals in the west of Indus and pushed southeast towards the Punjab in Mughal India.

He was succeeded by Timur Shah Durrani, who was the eldest son & successor of Ahamad Shah Durrani. He was married to the daughter of Mughal Emperor Alamgir II. He died in 1793. After his death a war of succession took place among his sons. This was the era of rising of Barakzai Sardars and later two brothers Fateh Khan and Dost Mohammed Khan played the role of the King maker in Afghanistan.

The war of succession was basically among the three sons Zaman Shah, Mahmud Shah and Shah Shuja. Timur Shah Durrani was succeeded by his son Zaman Shah Durrani in 1793 when he died and later Zaman Shah Durani was forced out by Mahmud Shah Durrani in 1801. Another son of Timur Shah Durrani, Shuja Shah Durrani forced out Mahmud Shah Durrani in 1803. Shuja Shah ruled from 1803 to 1809 and aligned with British in 1809. But later, just after signing this treaty in 1809, he was ousted again by his Brother Mahmud Shah Durrani. Shuja Shah fled to India, but later was arrested by Jahandad Khan Bamizai and imprisoned at Attock. However, he took the shelter of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and lived in Lahore. In return of his freedom, he gave Kohinoor Diamond to Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

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