Changes in Zamindari System from Mughal to British Era
During reigns of Shershah Suri and Akbar, the system was that land revenue was collected directly by the officers of the state and could be paid either in cash or in kind, though cash payments were encouraged. Thus, the peasant called ryot held his land directly from the crown. But in the eighteenth century, with the growing clout of British, the tax collectors tended to be hereditary and the right of collection of revenue from the cultivator (which was hitherto a duty) came to be considered as a right and a possession. Via the permanent settlement in Bengal, Bihar and Odisha, the Zamindars were recognized as proprietors of the land on condition that they would pay the government rent on a fix date. The peasants had no proprietary rights and were subject to ejection from the land unless they purchased it by paying the zamindar a special additional fee and price. This system continued till India became independent.